Hormones and Blood Regulation

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What is the main function of the sympathetic nervous system?

To release epinephrine and norepinephrine

Where does the sympathetic division originate from?

Thoracolumbar region of the spinal cord

What is the function of the collateral ganglia associated with the enteric nervous system?

To deal with digestion and absorption

What is the nature of sympathetic axons before and after the ganglia?

Before the ganglia, they are unmyelinated and short; after the ganglia, they are myelinated and long

What type of fibers run to the adrenal medulla and are long and myelinated?

Sympathetic fibers

Which cranial nerve carries fibers to control pupil size?

CN III

What type of synapses are activated by acetylcholine (Ach)?

Cholinergic synapses

Which receptors does the adrenergic system have?

Alpha and beta receptors

What is the term used to describe the area of a nerve that houses neurotransmitters but is not at the end like in the somatic nervous system?

Varicosity

Which reflex must synapse in the CNS?

Long reflex

What is responsible for autonomic reflexes, especially in the aorta and carotid arteries?

Baroreceptors

Where is autonomic control bilateral?

At the target effectors

Which organ is under parasympathetic tone and only begins to work under activity or disease states?

Heart

What is responsible for BP and HR increasing when a person stands up and changes head altitude?

Orthostatic hypotension

Which receptors do most organs have for both sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation?

Adrenergic receptors

What can cause autonomic pain to be felt in an unexpected area?

Referred pain

Which hormone is responsible for increasing sodium levels?

Aldosterone

What is the main function of parathyroid hormone (PH)?

Increasing blood calcium levels

What stimulates the retina of the eye to inhibit melatonin secretion?

Photons of light

Which gland is found superior to the kidneys and has two parts, the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla?

Adrenal gland

What is the main function of thyroid hormone (TH) in the body?

Regulating metabolic rate

Which hormone is produced by the pineal gland and affects circadian rhythms and body temperature?

Melatonin

What is the most common hormone produced by the adrenal cortex?

Cortisol

What causes an increase in heart rate, contractility, and blood pressure?

Increased levels of T3 and T4 hormones

Which hormone inhibits follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)?

Inhibin

What stimulates the fight or flight response?

Epinephrine and norepinephrine

What causes Cushing’s disease?

Too much cortisol production

What is the main function of calcitonin?

Decreasing blood calcium levels

What is the main function of thrombopoietin?

Stimulating platelet production

Which hormone decreases with aging and can contribute to osteoporosis?

Parathyroid hormone

What is the role of white blood cells (WBC) in the body?

Protecting from external and internal threats

What is the main function of plasma in the blood?

Carrying oxygen and nutrients

Which protein is responsible for transporting fatty acids and steroid hormones in the blood?

Albumin

What type of cells do lymphoid stem cells become during hematopoiesis?

Lymphocytes

Where does hematopoiesis primarily occur in adults?

Bone marrow

What is the main function of erythrocytes in the body?

Carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide

What is the primary function of plasma proteins known as globulins?

Acting as antibodies or immunoglobulins

What is a measure of the percentage of red blood cells in blood?

Hematocrit

What is an important function of platelets in the body?

Stopping bleeding

What is the primary reason that erythrocytes live through anaerobic respiration?

They lack mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum

What is the primary function of a reticulocyte?

To form mature erythrocytes

Why do erythrocytes have a thin middle and a plump periphery?

To increase surface area for gas exchange

What materials are essential for producing an erythrocyte?

Iron, copper, zinc, and B vitamins

What happens to erythrocytes after about 120 days?

They are recycled and used again

What is the primary function of hemoglobin in erythrocytes?

Attach to oxygen molecules for transport

What does a pulse oximeter measure in the blood?

Percent saturation of oxygen

What condition is characterized by the shape of the erythrocyte being changed and carrying less oxygen?

Sickle cell anemia

What is the primary role of neutrophils among granular leukocytes?

Quickly respond to bacterial infections

What is the main function of basophils among granular leukocytes?

Intensify inflammation like mast cells

What is the primary function of lymphocytes in the immune system?

Produce antibodies

What can be a cause of vitamin deficient anemia?

Lack of vitamin B12 or folate

Which part of the brain communicates with the spinal cord through the dorsal longitudinal fasciculus?

Forebrain

Which division of the nervous system is responsible for increasing heart output and constricting blood vessels?

Sympathetic division

Which type of chemicals come from outside the body and can have a broad range of effects on the autonomic nervous system?

Exogenous chemicals

Which drug enhances the sympathetic response by firing all preganglionic fibers in both divisions?

Nicotine

What is the function of anticholinergic drugs in relation to the parasympathetic response?

Reduce the parasympathetic response

What is characteristic of hormones from amino acids?

They have shorter half-lives

Which hormone receptor does not cause a second messenger response inside the cell?

Thyroid hormone receptor in the cell

What is the role of cyclic adenosine phosphate (cAMP) as a second messenger?

It allows for an intense response to a small amount of hormone

What is the function of phosphodiesterase (PDE) in relation to cAMP?

It turns off cAMP production quickly

What does phospholipase C (PLC) do when activated by a G protein?

Splits a phospholipid into diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol triphosphate (IP3)

What is the alternate second messenger activated by some hormones?

Calcium ion

What type of hormones come from cholesterol and have longer half-lives?

Steroids

What is the process that happens when a cell decreases the number of receptors due to excessive stimulation?

Downregulation

What effect enables one hormone to facilitate the action of another hormone?

Permissive effect

Which gland serves as the command center for the endocrine system?

Hypothalamus

Which hormone, associated with childbirth, is secreted by the posterior pituitary during a positive feedback loop?

Oxytocin

What connects the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland?

Infundibulum

Which hormone regulates thyroid activity by activating thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)?

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

What substance is the center of hormone production in the thyroid gland and is dependent on iodine?

Colloid

Which hormone stimulates melanin formation in response to UV light?

[MRH]

What is the main function of growth hormone (GH) in the body?

[GH] promotes protein synthesis and tissue building.

Which hormone signals the anterior pituitary to release gonadotropins, regulating reproductive activity?

[GnRH]

What is the primary function of estrogen?

Develops the reproductive system

Which hormone is responsible for decreasing blood glucose levels by facilitating glucose entry into cells?

Insulin

What stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid in the stomach in response to stomach distention?

Gastrin

What hormone is produced by the pancreas and increases blood glucose levels through glycogenolysis?

Glucagon

Which organ is responsible for the production of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in response to atrial stretch?

Heart

What is the primary role of erythropoietin (EPO) in the body?

Stimulates blood cell production in bone marrow

What hormone, produced by the kidneys, leads to aldosterone production to maintain high blood volume?

Renin

What is the primary function of leptin, produced by adipose tissue?

Makes a person feel full after eating

What is the active form of vitamin D, converted from cholecalciferol in the kidneys?

Calcitriol

What is the main function of thymosins produced by the thymus?

Helps develop T lymphocytes

Which hormone is an intermediate stimulus to help bone growth and is produced by the liver?

Insulin like growth factor

What is the main function of fibroblast growth factor 23 which is produced by the skeleton?

Inhibits calcitriol production

Test your knowledge on hormones and their role in blood pressure regulation, hormone production, and its changes during aging. Learn about angiotensinogen, thrombopoietin, hepcidin, and the effects of hormonal changes.

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