Hexose Monophosphate Shunt Pathway Quiz

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What is the main aim of the uronic acid pathway?

Synthesis of glucuronic acid

Which form of glucose is produced in the uronic acid pathway?

UDP-glucose

What is the end product of glucuronic acid metabolism in humans?

D-xylulose 5-phosphate

How does glucuronic acid contribute to detoxification?

By conjugating with agents for excretion

Why is bilirubin mentioned in relation to the importance of the uronic acid pathway?

To facilitate the excretion and prevent jaundice

What is the main role of the Cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase system in the human body?

Detoxifying harmful agents like drugs and food preservatives

In the Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system, what provides the reducing equivalents (hydrogen) required for the series of reactions?

NADPH

Which enzyme deficiency is characterized by hemolytic anemia due to the inability to detoxify oxidizing agents?

G6PD deficiency

Aside from hemolytic anemia, what is another clinical manifestation of G6PD deficiency that typically appears 1–4 days after birth?

Neonatal jaundice

What resistance effect does G6PD deficiency share with Sickle cell trait and thalassemias?

Resistance to malaria

Which pathway is a parallel pathway to glycolysis and converts glucose 6-phosphate to fructose 6-phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate?

Hexose monophosphate shunt

What is the primary product generated from the conversion of glucose 6-phosphate in the Hexose monophosphate shunt?

Ribose 5-phosphate

Which molecule is crucial for maintaining the integrity of the red blood cell membrane?

NADPH

Which metabolic pathway is essential for detoxifying bilirubin released during hemoglobin breakdown?

Glucuronic acid pathway

What is the main function of the Hexose monophosphate shunt in the context of red blood cells?

Generation of NADPH

What is the role of glutathione peroxidase in the detoxification process?

It reduces H2O2 to water in the presence of reduced glutathione.

What is the function of NADPH in the detoxification process related to hydrogen peroxide?

It regenerates GSH through a reaction catalyzed by glutathione reductase.

Which enzyme plays a crucial role in defending the body against hydrogen peroxide?

Glutathione peroxidase

What is the primary function of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the detoxification process?

To detoxify hydrogen peroxide

How does the cell regenerate GSH after it has reacted with hydrogen peroxide?

Via a reaction catalyzed by glutathione reductase using NADPH

Which process requires GSH for the protection of cell membranes from free radicals and peroxides within the cell?

Oxidation to UDP-glucuronic acid

What is the consequence of oxidation of sulfhydryl groups in proteins, including hemoglobin?

Formation of denatured proteins

Which factor is crucial for maintaining RBC deformability and preventing their removal by macrophages?

RBC membrane rigidity

In G6PD deficiency, which pathway provides the primary means of generating NADPH in RBCs?

Pentose phosphate pathway

What precipitating factor in G6PD deficiency leads to hemolytic anemia upon exposure?

Antibiotics like sulfamethoxazole

What is the role of Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in the Hexose monophosphate shunt pathway?

It initiates the pathway and is the rate-limiting step.

How does NADPH regulate G6PD activity in the Hexose monophosphate shunt pathway?

Directly inhibits G6PD activity.

What is the significance of the NADPH/NADP+ ratio in the Hexose monophosphate shunt pathway?

It ensures production of only the required amount of NADPH.

What role does Insulin play in the Hexose monophosphate shunt pathway?

Upregulates G6PD gene expression.

Which product of the Hexose monophosphate shunt pathway is essential for the synthesis of nucleotides?

Ribose-5-P

What is the role of NADPH oxidase in white blood cells in the context of the text?

Reducing O2 to superoxide anion for killing bacterial cells

Which enzyme catalyzes the synthesis of nitric oxide as described in the text?

Nitric oxide synthase

What happens to nitric oxide (NO) due to its reaction with O2 as described in the text?

It converts into nitrates and nitrites

Which molecule has a very short half-life in tissues due to its reactivity with oxygen?

Nitric oxide (NO)

What is the endogenous antioxidant enzyme responsible for removing superoxide anion after bacterial cell killing?

Superoxide dismutase

What substrates are required for the synthesis of nitric oxide according to the text?

Arginine, O2, and NADPH

Test your knowledge on the irreversible oxidative phase and reversible sugar-phosphate interconversions in the Hexose Monophosphate Shunt pathway. Explore the regulation of the pathway, focusing on the role of Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and its feedback inhibition by NADPH.

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