Gross Anatomy of the Heart and Pericardium Chapter Uno

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What is the function of the pericardium?

To restrict excessive movements of the heart

What composes the double-walled sac around the heart?

A superficial fibrous pericardium and a deep two-layer serous pericardium

From which arteries does the pericardium receive its blood supply?

Pericardiacophrenic branches of the internal thoracic arteries

What separates the parietal layer from the visceral layer of the pericardium?

Fluid-filled pericardial space

What is the venous drainage of the pericardium?

Tributaries that empty into the azygous system of veins

Which nervous system branches supply the pericardium?

Vagus, phrenic, and sympathetic trunk

What is the term for the excess fluid between the parietal and visceral layers of the serous pericardium?

Pericardial effusion

What can result from the rapid accumulation of as little as 200 mL of fluid in the pericardial space?

Cardiac tamponade

What is the purpose of pericardiocentesis?

Drainage of excess fluid from the pericardium

Where is pericardial puncture usually carried out to avoid puncturing the internal thoracic artery?

Close to the medial or sternal end of the right 5th to 6th costal cartilage

What results from perforation of either the heart or the intrapericardial great vessels?

Hemopericardium

What is a clinical feature of pericarditis?

Sharp central chest pain exacerbated by movement and lying down and relieved by sitting forward

Where is the heart situated within the thoracic cavity?

Middle mediastinum

What is the consequence of a sufficiently large volume of pericardial effusion?

Reduction in ventricular filling

What can develop slowly due to chronic pericardial effusions?

Cardiac enlargement

What is a common cause of pericardial inflammation?

Infection (bacterial, viral, fungal and tuberculosis)

Explore the fibroserous sac that encloses the heart and the roots of the great vessels, its functions, and composition. Test your knowledge of the gross anatomy of the heart and pericardium through this quiz.

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