Geology 122: Weathering and Soils Lecture Notes

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18 Questions

Which soil order is characterized by a thick O horizon (peat) formed by accumulation of organic matter that fails to decompose?

Histosol

In which soil order do you typically find soils with aluminum and iron, forming in semiarid to humid areas?

Alfisol

Which soil order is similar to Alfisol but more highly weathered and may contain laterite or bauxite horizons?

Oxisol

What type of soils are characteristic of coniferous forests in cooler climates with a thick O horizon?

Histosol

Which soil order is most likely to be found in permafrost areas?

Gelisol

In what soil order are heavily leached soils that resemble Alfisols but are more weathered found?

Ultisol

What soil order is typically found in tropical rainforest environments?

Ultisol

Which of the following is an indication of a high degree of weathering in a soil?

Presence of clay-enriched horizons

According to the USDA soil classification system, which soil texture class has the highest proportion of sand?

Sand

Which soil characteristic is typically associated with well-drained, nutrient-rich forest soils?

Thick, organic-rich surface horizon

What type of soil feature is indicated by the presence of cutans, glaebules, and pedotubules?

Soil structure

Which of the following is a type of duricrust or hardpan layer that forms in soils?

Ferricrete

Which soil order is characterized by a high glass content due to formation on volcanic ash?

Andisol

What is a distinguishing feature of Vertisols?

Tendency to shrink and swell, forming deep cracks

Which soil order is characterized by a thick, organic-rich A horizon and a B horizon enriched in clay or calcium carbonate?

Mollisol

Which soil order is indicative of an early stage of soil development with no B horizon development?

Entisol

Which soil order forms under desert conditions and is characterized by slow soil formation and scarce accumulated organic matter?

Aridisol

What is a distinguishing feature of Inceptisols?

Young soil with some leaching in the A horizon and a weakly developed B horizon

Study notes on weathering and different soil orders such as Histosol, Spodosol, Alfisol, and organic soils like swamp soil and forest soil. Includes information on O horizon formation, typical soils of coniferous forests, and soils found in different climate conditions.

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