Fetal Development: Dr. Dastan A Salih

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During which period does the transformation from embryo to fetus occur?

9th week to birth

At the beginning of the 3rd month, what fraction of the crown-rump length (CRL) does the head constitute?

1/2

When does the rapid growth of the body occur during the fetal period?

During the last two months of gestation

What is the length of pregnancy from the last normal menstrual period (LNMP)?

280 days or 40 weeks

At what point does the size of the head become approximately 1/4th of crown-heel length (CHL)?

Beginning of 5th month

What happens at the end of the 12th week during fetal development?

Head becomes less than 1/2 CRL

At what week does the transfer of erythropoiesis site from liver to spleen occur?

9th to 12th week

What occurs during the 14th week of fetal development?

Rapid growth and coordinated limb movement

What marks the end of the first half of intrauterine life?

Fetal movements felt by mother (quickening)

At what week does the spleen become an important site of hematopoiesis?

26th week

What occurs during the 22nd to 23rd weeks of fetal development?

Responds to noise (blink-startle responses)

What is the approximate fetal length and weight at the end of the first half of intrauterine life?

$15cm$, about ½ the total length of newborn, and less than $500$ gm

When do intestinal loops withdraw into the abdominal cavity during fetal development?

12th week

What occurs by the end of the 28th week of fetal development?

$1100gms$ weight and bone marrow hematopoiesis

At what week does the fetus begin to respond to noise with blink-startle responses?

$22nd$ week

What stimulates the ovarian primary follicles to develop and become mature?

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Which hormone is responsible for the production of Estrogen by the follicular cells?

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Under normal conditions, how many of the primary-stage follicles reach full maturity in each ovarian cycle?

Only one follicle

Which gland controls the sexual cycles in females?

Pituitary gland

During which phase of the ovarian cycle is luteinizing hormone (LH) active?

Ovulatory phase

Which hormone acts on cells of the pituitary gland to stimulate and control cyclic changes in the ovary?

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

What is the role of FSH in the early development of the ovarian follicle?

Induces early development of the ovarian follicle

What is the function of LH in the final stages of maturation of the ovarian follicle?

Triggers ovulation

How does estrogen production by the granulosa and thecal cells affect the uterine endometrium?

Enters the proliferative phase

What is the role of LH at mid-cycle?

Triggers ovulation

What occurs under the influence of FSH and LH immediately preceding ovulation?

Development of vesicular follicle

What is thought to carry the oocyte into the uterine tube just before ovulation?

Sweeping movements of the fimbriae

How long does it take for a fertilized oocyte to reach the uterine lumen in humans?

3-4 days

Where does fertilization occur in humans?

Ampullary region of fallopian tube

Learn about the fetal period, from the 9th week to birth, and the rapid growth and maturation of tissues and organs. Understand the transformation from embryo to fetus and the patterns of growth in length and weight during pregnancy.

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