Factors Affecting Personality Development

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18 Questions

During which phase did Freud suggest that children may show exhibitionism?

Phallic phase

According to Freudian theory, what are the main events of the adolescent period?

Finding new love objects

Which theory stresses the importance of culture and society in personality development?

Eriksonian theory

In which phase did Freud observe children diverting their libido into concrete thinking?

Latent phase

According to Erikson's theory, what is more important than instinctual drives in determining behavior?

Social view of self

Which theorist focused on mental illness development, while another focused on actions leading to mental health?

Freud and Erikson, respectively

What is the developmental task for infants according to Erikson?

Learning trust versus mistrust

How does a parent help an infant in the stage of learning trust versus mistrust?

Feeding and changing the diaper promptly

What can happen if care for an infant is inconsistent or inadequate according to Erikson?

A basic mistrust can develop in the infant

Which stage of Erikson's theory deals with learning autonomy versus shame or doubt?

The Toddler stage

What characterizes autonomy in the toddler according to Erikson?

Self-government and independence

How do emotionally burned children react to potential future emotional involvement?

They shun further emotional involvement

What stage of Freudian psychosexual development is associated with the conflict 'I should not want that'?

Anal stage

Which factor affecting personality development is not mentioned in the text?

Geographic location

According to Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, which stage typically occurs in early childhood?

Trust vs. Mistrust

In Freudian theory, what is the conflict associated with the Phallic phase of development?

Oedipus complex

Which theory provides a framework for explaining unconscious incorporation of standards and restrictions from parents and society to guide behaviors?

Erikson's psychosocial theory

What defines the transition between developmental stages according to developmental theories?

Completion of developmental tasks

Study Notes

Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory

  • The "phallic phase" is a period of childhood development characterized by masturbation and exhibitionism.
  • During this phase, children show interest in the differences between the sexes.

Freud's Stages of Development

  • The "latent phase" is a period of childhood development where children's libido is diverted into concrete thinking.
  • The "genital phase" is a period of adolescence where new sexual aims and love objects are established.

Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development

  • Erikson's theory focuses on the importance of culture and society in personality development.
  • His theory emphasizes the importance of social view of self over instinctual drives in determining behavior.
  • Erikson's theory is more optimistic about human growth possibilities compared to Freud's theory.

Erikson's Stages of Development

  • Erikson's theory describes eight developmental stages covering the entire life span.
  • Each stage involves a conflict between two opposing forces.

Superego Development

  • The superego develops during the preschool stage.
  • The superego is characterized by the thought "I should not want that!"

Factors Affecting Personality Development

  • Heredity affects personality development through characteristics present at birth.
  • Birth order affects personality development, with first-borns being more achievement-oriented and responsible, and later-borns being more social and affectionate.
  • Parents' age, occupation, economic status, religious orientation, level of education, and cultural heritage also influence personality development.
  • Culture also plays a role in shaping personality development.

Conscience Development

  • Conscience is the morality principle that develops as a person incorporates standards and restrictions from parents and society.
  • Conscience emerges around age five.

Developmental Theories

  • Developmental theories provide a framework for explaining human development.
  • Developmental tasks are skills or growth responsibilities that arise at a particular time in an individual's life.
  • The completion of developmental tasks defines whether a child has passed from one developmental stage to another.

Erikson's Developmental Stages

  • Infants learn trust versus mistrust through consistent and adequate care.
  • Toddlers learn autonomy versus shame or doubt through their new motor and mental abilities.
  • The resolution of each conflict allows the individual to move on to the next phase of development.

Explore the factors that influence personality development, including heredity, birth order, and parental influences. Learn how certain characteristics present at birth and family dynamics can shape an individual's personality.

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