Urinary and reproductive PHYSIOLOGY

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By MomentousMorganite



125 Questions

What is the most important route of waste removal

Produces urine

Transports urine to urinary bladder

Collects and stores urine

Transports urine out of the body

Why is erythropoietin important

The kidneys produce some prostaglandins

The kidneys help maintain homeostasis by manipulating _________________

The kidneys ability to manipulate the composition of blood plasma helps to

What are the substances kidneys help to get rid of that can become toxic if they build up

Which of the following is NOT a homeostatic function of the kidney

The amount of urine produced is controlled by _________

Maintains fluid balance regulation

In order to maintain acid-base balance regulation what ions must be removed from blood and excreted in urine

The kidneys have close association with the endocrine system, therefore they can influence the rate of release of some hormones, what are they

The kidney influences the release of ADH from the

The mineralocorticoid secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland is

Specialized cells in the kidneys produce

There are 3 MAIN mechanisms of renal waste elimination, what are they

Filtration of blood occurs in the

The fluid that is filtered out of blood is called

The glomerular capillaries have ____________ which forces plasma out of the capillaries into the ________________

The transfer of plasma out of the glomerular capillaries is aided by _________

Both blood cells and plasma proteins are too ________ to __________

Too big to pass through the capillary endothelium

The presence of abnormal amounts of protein in the urine is used as

How fast blood plasma is filtered as it passes through the glumerolus is termed ___________--

What is GFR dependent on

Approximately ______ of the plasma is removed from the blood circulation every minute

_______ reduces the volume of glomerular filtrate (urine) produced

Glomerular filtrate contains waste products BUT __________

Reabsorption occurs from the ____ into the ______

Glomerular filtrate leaves bowmans capsule and enters the ________, now the filtrate is called _________

Approximately ____ of reabsorption occurs in the PCT

80% of _________ is reabsorbed

100% of _____ are reabsorbed

Reabsorption occurs via

____________ "hitch a ride" on the same carrier protein and are ________ transported into PCT epithelial cells. This is called _____________

Reabsorption of _________ takes place in the ___________- via simple diffusion

_________ reabsorption takes place in ___________ via unknown mechanisms that involve _____

____________- is reabsorbed from _____ and the collecting duct and is increased by ______

Most secretion takes place in

_________________ are eliminated by secretion in the DCT

Urine volume is determine by _____________________ when it reaches the renal pelvis

ADH acts on the _____________ to promote water reabsorption

Without ADH water will not be reabsorbed which will cause increased urine volume, termed _________

What causes an osmotic imbalance that results in water flowing back into the bloodstream along with sodium

Aldosterone increases reabsorption of ____ in the ____ and ____ back into the blood

Expulsion of urine from urinary bladder into urethra for elimination from the body is termed =

Reabsorption of sodium requires

For any substance to be reabsorbed it must

As glomerular filtrate enters the PCT ______ attaches to a carrier molecule in the tubular filtrate (___) and is transported passively into the _____ of the PCT epithelial cells

Sodium reabsorption occurs in the PCT, but additional reabsorption also occurs in the

___________ passively follows sodium to balance out the ________ in the interstitium caused by the ______ sodium ions being pumped into the interstitial fluid

After sodium cotransport, sodium is actively ___________ and it enters the peritubular capillaries

Sodium ions are usually exchanged for _____ that are then secreted into the tubular filtrate. This occurs under the influence of ?

Increases reabsorption of sodium in the DCT and collecting ducts back into the blood

If the ___________ of glomerular capillaries is damaged _____________ can leak into the glomerular filtrate

If the endothelium of glomerular capillaries is damaged proteins and blood cells can leak into the glomerular filtrate. __________ they will show up and they will show up as abnormal constituents of the urine

Ureters exit the kidney at the hilus and enter the bladder _____ at an oblique angle

Urinary bladder

Fullness of urinary bladder is detected by _________

When the trigger point is reached, ______ is activated and returns a motor impulse and the smooth muscle of the wall ______. This is responsible for the sensation of having to urinate

__________ control of the muscular sphincter around the _________ leads to temporary control of urination

Continuation of the neck of bladder runs through the pelvic canal to the outside of the body through the __________ in males and the _________ in females

Transports spermatozoa and accessory reproductive gland secretions in male

Cell division

Animals may look alike but unless they are _______- they are not the same

Contain the genetic material (blue print) for all the structures and functions in the body

Where are chromosomes located

For the body to function correctly


Diploid chromosome number

The diploid chromosome number is

Sex chromosomes



As a cell divides by ________ the total number of chromosomes in each daughter cell is ______ by half of the numbers that the parent had

Most of the cells divide by a process called

_______ results in each daughter cell having an identical, full diploid set of chromosomes

When the reproductive cells divide by _________ the chromosomes do not produce duplicate copies of themselves before the cells pull apart

___________ of the total chromosomes, including _____ sex chromosome/s randomly goes to each daughter cell before the cell divides

Half of the sperm cells produced have an X chromosome and a Y chromosome

Ova are produced in

Production of ova involves a _______________ events under the influence of two hormones

Production of ova involves a complex sequence of cyclical events under the influence of which hormones

Rupture of the mature follicle with release of the oocyte (ova)

The oocyte is called a _________ after release into the uterine tube

Ovulation occurs spontaneously due to rising ____ levels

Example of induced ovulator/s

In induced ovulators, breeding must take place _______ to stimulate ovulation

Endocrine signal must be sent from _______ to maintain the ___

Designed to get the ovum and spermatozoa together in the right place at the right time

Estrous cycle is controlled by the hormone/s

Breeding takes place during a ___________ within the reproductive cycle when the chance of a successful pregnancy is the highest

Detaches easily

Loosely attached and detaches easily

Life support system for the developing embryo/fetus


Contains blood vessels and the urachus

In some places the placenta actually attaches to the uterus (_____)

Consists of layers of soft membranes that form two fluid filled sacs




Gestation is divided into

Stages of labor

In multiparous species the second and third stages of parturition intermix with one another

When it is time for parturition a series of events lead to the ovary to stop producing ________

When it is time for parturition a series of events lead to the ovary to stop producing progesterone, leading to a massive decline in the damn

When it is time for parturition a series of events lead to the ovary to stop producing progesterone, leading to a massive increase in the damn

When it is time for parturition adrenal glucorticoids ______ in fetus and __________ in dams estrogen level and release of ______ from uterine wall

Estrogen and prostaglandins _____ the sensitivity of the myometrium to the ________ released from the dams posterior pituitary gland which causes _____ and ultimately, labor

Produces colostrum

Only females produce milk due to hormones secreted

When nursing or milking begins, sensory nerve impulses are sent to the brain specifically the _________ and stimulates the _________

Hormones involved in lactation

The _____________ and ___________ of mammary glands are the first step in making them able to produce milk

Number of mammary glands in the horse

Mammary glands of the sheep and goat

Mammary glands of the swine

Mammary glands of the cow

There is a variety in the number of openings from which milk flows from the nipples or teats

There is no variety in the number of openings from which milk flows from the nipples or teats, they are all uniform

______ stimulates ______ cells around the alveoli and small ducts of mammary glands to ______, which is what squeezes the milk down in the ducts


Test your knowledge of the urinary system and waste removal with this quiz. Explore topics such as urine production, transportation, and storage, as well as the role of erythropoietin in the body.

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