Enzymes as Clinical Diagnostic Tool

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18 Questions

What term did Friedrich Wilhelm Kuhne coin in 1878 to describe biological catalysts?

Enzymes

What is the literal meaning of the term 'enzyme'?

In yeast

Which type of molecules are ribozymes?

RNA molecules

What term is used to refer to the reactants in enzyme-catalyzed reactions?

Substrates

What characteristic of enzymes allows them to be highly selective in their catalytic activity?

Shape

What is the main reason enzymes are considered catalysts in biochemical reactions?

They lower the energy of activation

What is the general function of enzymes in living cells?

Control of metabolic processes

Which type of catalysis involves the formation of a covalent bond between the enzyme and the substrate?

Covalent catalysis

What is the significance of Km in the Michaelis-Menten equation?

It is the substrate concentration at which the reaction rate is half of Vmax.

Which type of inhibition involves a molecule that competes with the substrate for binding to the active site of the enzyme?

Reversible competitive inhibition

What is a possible consequence of deficiencies in enzyme catalytic activity?

Genetic defects

Which regulatory mechanism involves a change in enzyme activity due to the binding of a small molecule at a location other than the active site?

Allosteric regulation

Where are enzymes synthesized?

Ribosomes attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum

What is the purpose of compartmentalization of enzymes within a cell?

To isolate reaction substrates or products

What does it mean for an enzyme-catalyzed reaction to be reversible?

It can proceed in both forward and reverse directions

How is enzyme activity regulated within a cell?

By being able to increase or decrease enzyme activity

What is the optimum temperature for most human enzymes?

$35-40$°F

What term describes the sensitivity of enzymes to heat and temperature?

Thermolabile

Explore the role of enzymes as a clinical diagnostic tool for various diseases. Learn about the history of enzymes, their definition as biological catalysts, and their importance in reactions such as alcohol fermentation by zymase enzyme. Friedrich Wilhelm Kuhne's contribution to the study of enzymes is also discussed.

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