Biochemistry of Enzymes: Factors Affecting Activity and Clinical Significance

IllustriousChocolate avatar
IllustriousChocolate
·
·
Download

Start Quiz

Study Flashcards

26 Questions

What are the factors that can affect enzyme activity?

Temperature, pH, and substrate or enzyme concentration

What is the systematic name for an enzyme?

Substrate + ase or Substrate + function + ase

What clinical conditions are associated with low quantity of enzymes?

Favism, Albinism, and Porphyrias

What deficiency leads to a reduction in melanin production and hypersensitivity to sunlight?

Deficiency of tyrosinase activity

Which compound, when accumulated, causes the urine to turn red and makes the skin abnormally sensitive to sunlight?

Uroporphyrinogen I

What is the mechanism of action of Methotrexate in treating leukemia?

Methotrexate inhibits the production of tetrahydrofolate, limiting the amount of N5,N10-methylene tetrahydrofolate available for DNA synthesis.

How does the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase get inhibited?

Sulphanilamide, structurally similar to p-aminobenzoic acid, inhibits the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase.

What is the structure of Folic Acid?

Folic acid consists of a pteridine base attached to p-aminobenzoic acid and glutamic acid.

How does Ethanol function in the treatment of Methanol poisoning?

Ethanol is used in the treatment of Methanol poisoning.

What are some irreversible inhibitors of enzymes mentioned in the text?

Heavy metals such as Ag+, Hg+2, Pb+2 have strong affinities for -SH groups and act as irreversible inhibitors.

What are the factors that can affect enzyme activity?

Temperature, pH, Substrate Concentration, Enzyme Concentration

What deficiency leads to a reduction in melanin production and hypersensitivity to sunlight?

Deficiency of tyrosinase activity

What is the clinical significance of low quantity enzymes?

Favism, Albinism, Vampires

What is the abnormal isomer of a protoporphyrin precursor that causes urine to turn red and makes the skin abnormally sensitive to sunlight?

Uroporphyrinogen I

What are the three nomenclature types used for naming enzymes?

Systematic name: Substrate + ase, Substrate + function + ase, Trivial name

What are the three factors affecting enzyme activity?

Temperature, pH, Substrate or Enzyme concentration

What is the mechanism of action of Methotrexate in treating leukemia?

Inhibiting the production of tetrahydrofolate, which limits the amount of N5,N10-methylene tetrahydrofolate available for dTMP synthesis.

How does Sulphanilamide inhibit the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase?

Sulphanilamide is structurally similar to p-aminobenzoic acid and inhibits the enzyme (dihydropteroate synthetase).

What is the structure of Folic Acid?

Folic acid = pteridine base attached to p-aminobenzoic acid and glutamic acid.

How does Ethanol function in the treatment of Methanol poisoning?

Ethanol competes with methanol for alcohol dehydrogenase, reducing the formation of toxic metabolites.

What deficiency leads to a reduction in melanin production and hypersensitivity to sunlight?

Deficiency of enzymes involved in the synthesis of heme.

What is the systematic name for an enzyme?

Enzymes are named systematically based on the reactions they catalyze and the substrates they act on.

How does 5-fluorouracil affect the synthesis of thymidine?

5-fluorouracil inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, preventing the conversion of dihydrofolate back to tetrahydrofolate, thus preventing thymidine synthesis.

What are some irreversible inhibitors of enzymes mentioned in the text?

Heavy metals such as Ag+, Hg+2, Pb+2 which have strong affinities for -SH groups.

What clinical conditions are associated with low quantity of enzymes?

Anemia and sensitivity to sunlight.

What is the role of drugs like Penicillin and Statine drugs in enzyme inhibition?

These drugs act by inhibiting specific enzymes.

Test your knowledge of the biochemistry of enzymes, including nomenclature, factors affecting enzyme activity (temperature, pH, substrate or enzyme concentration), protein and enzyme denaturation, and the clinical significance of enzyme quantities in diseases like favism and albinism.

Make Your Own Quizzes and Flashcards

Convert your notes into interactive study material.

Get started for free

More Quizzes Like This

Use Quizgecko on...
Browser
Browser