Endocrine System Quiz Anatomy

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75 Questions

How does aldosterone affect blood pressure (BP)?

Increases

Which hormones are secreted by the kidneys?

Erythropoietin and Renin

What does erythropoietin stimulate in the body?

Production of red blood cells by the bone marrow

How does antidiuretic hormone (ADH) affect blood pressure (BP)?

Increases

What does ANP stimulate in the body?

Vasodilation

What hormone does the delta cell of the pancreas secrete?

Somatostatin

What hormones are secreted by the testes?

Testosterone and Estrogen

Which endocrine gland is known as the master gland?

Pituitary

Which endocrine gland secretes hormones necessary for calcium absorption?

Parathyroid

Which part of the endocrine system aids in the digestion of protein, fats, and carbohydrates, and produces insulin to control blood sugar levels?

Pancreas

What are the lobes of the pituitary gland?

Anterior and Posterior

Which endocrine gland helps build resistance to disease?

Thymus

What is the outer portion of the adrenal gland called?

Adrenal Cortex

What is the inner portion of the adrenal gland called?

Adrenal Medulla

What are the sex glands in females called?

Ovaries

What are the sex glands in males called?

Testes

Which endocrine gland regulates hunger, thirst, sleep, wakefulness, and most involuntary mechanisms including body temperature?

Hypothalamus

Which gland is responsible for the manufacture and secretion of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and small amounts of androgenic sex hormones collectively called corticosteroids?

Adrenal cortex

What hormone increases water reabsorption in the kidney and increases blood pressure?

ADH (vasopressin)

What hormone is important in decreasing serum calcium levels?

Calcitonin

What causes most hormones to be secreted?

Negative feedback mechanisms

Which hormone regulates the metabolic rate and influences the growth and development of the body?

Thyroid hormone

What is considered to be a hormone?

Norepinephrine

A client with acromegaly is admitted to the hospital with complaints of partial blindness that began suddenly. What does the nurse suspect is occurring with this client?

Pressure on the optic nerve

What skin findings should a nurse pay particular attention to in a client with a history of endocrine problems?

Excessive hair growth or loss

Which hormone inhibits the release of insulin?

Somatostatin

What hormone is responsible for stimulating the release of TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)?

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

What clinical manifestation would a nurse expect to find in a client with a suspected pituitary tumor causing panhypopituitarism?

Fatigue and weakness

Which gland is responsible for the physiologic response of a pounding heart and dry mouth in a nurse working in an ED?

Adrenal medulla

What hormone is considered client teaching information about its role in inhibiting the release of insulin?

Somatostatin

What hormone regulates the balance between calcium and phosphorus in the body?

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

What hormone is secreted by the thyroid gland and influences the growth and development of the body?

Thyroid hormone

Which hormone is considered a neurohormone that stimulates the release of TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)?

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

T3 and T4 help regulate which physiological process?

Basal Metabolic Rate

Aldosterone causes which actions in the body?

Sodium and water reabsorbed, potassium excreted

Which endocrine gland regulates hunger, thirst, sleep, wakefulness, and most involuntary mechanisms including body temperature?

Hypothalamus

What are the lobes of the pituitary gland called?

Anterior and posterior lobes

What is the outer portion of the adrenal gland called?

Adrenal cortex

What is the role of parathormone?

Increase serum calcium levels

What is considered to be a hormone?

Hemoglobin

Which gland was originally identified as the master gland?

Pituitary gland

Which hormone regulates the balance between calcium and phosphorus in the body?

Calcitonin

What causes most hormones to be secreted?

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

What skin findings should a nurse pay particular attention to in a client with a history of endocrine problems?

Dry and coarse skin

Which hormone is responsible for stimulating the release of TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)?

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

What hormone is responsible for stimulating the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow?

Erythropoietin

What is the inner portion of the adrenal gland called?

Medulla

What hormone increases water reabsorption in the kidney and increases blood pressure?

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Which hormone is considered a neurohormone that stimulates the release of TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)?

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

T3 and T4 help regulate which physiological process?

Metabolic rate

Which endocrine gland is known as the master gland?

Pituitary

Which endocrine gland secretes hormones necessary for calcium absorption?

Parathyroid

What is the outer portion of the adrenal gland called?

Cortex

Which gland helps build resistance to disease?

Thymus

Which part of the endocrine system aids in the digestion of protein, fats, and carbohydrates, and also produces insulin to control blood sugar levels?

Pancreas

Which endocrine gland regulates hunger, thirst, sleep, wakefulness, and most involuntary mechanisms including body temperature?

Hypothalamus

Which hormone is responsible for stimulating the release of TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone)?

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

When a client's gallbladder has decreased ability to release bile when he is having a high fat content meal, what hormone is not released to stimulate contractions of the gallbladder?

Cholecystokinin

What hormone increases water reabsorption in the kidney and increases blood pressure?

Aldosterone

Which endocrine gland regulates hunger, thirst, sleep, wakefulness, and most involuntary mechanisms including body temperature?

Hypothalamus

What is considered to be a hormone?

Insulin

T3 and T4 help regulate which physiological process?

Basal Metabolic Rate

What is the primary role of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in the body?

Decreases blood volume

How does aldosterone affect blood pressure (BP)?

Increases BP

Which hormone stimulates the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow?

Erythropoietin

What is the primary role of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in the body?

Increases blood pressure (BP)

What is the role of insulin in the body?

Lowers blood glucose levels

Which hormones are secreted by the ovaries?

Estrogen and progesterone

What is the primary function of the pineal gland?

Regulates sleep/wake cycle

What is the role of parathormone?

Increase serum calcium levels

What hormone would a nurse identify as important in decreasing serum calcium levels?

Calcitonin

What skin findings should a nurse pay particular attention to in a client with a history of endocrine problems?

Excessive hair growth or loss

What causes most hormones to be secreted?

Decrease in hormonal levels

What hormone regulates the balance between calcium and phosphorus in the body?

Parathyroid hormone

Which hormone is responsible for stimulating the production of red blood cells by the bone marrow?

Erythropoietin

Study Notes

  • The endocrine system is responsible for regulating metabolism, growth, and development.
  • The pituitary gland, often called the "master gland," controls other glands and influences growth, metabolism, and regeneration.
  • The pituitary gland secretes hormones essential for calcium absorption.
  • The parathyroid gland aids in protein, fat, and carbohydrate digestion and produces insulin, which regulates blood sugar levels.
  • The pituitary gland is influenced by the hypothalamus, and its lobes are the anterior (adrenohypophysis) and posterior (neurohypophysis).
  • The thymus gland, located above the kidneys, secretes thymosin and thymopoietin, which aid in immunity.
  • The endocrine system helps maintain homeostasis using feedback mechanisms.
  • The hypothalamus regulates hunger, thirst, sleep, wakefulness, and most involuntary mechanisms.
  • The thyroid gland secretes hormones that regulate energy and metabolism.
  • The testes produce testosterone, and the sex glands in females are ovaries.
  • The adrenal gland consists of two parts: the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla.
  • The adrenal cortex secretes corticosteroids, which include glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and small amounts of androgenic sex hormones.
  • A client diagnosed with parathormone deficiency requires skeletal system care.
  • Thymosin and thymopoietin, secreted by the thymus gland, aid in immunity.
  • ADH (antidiuretic hormone) is secreted by the posterior pituitary and increases water reabsorption in the kidney and blood pressure.
  • Oxytocin is secreted by the posterior pituitary and increases uterine contraction and releases breast milk after childbirth.
  • Parathyroid hormone increases serum calcium levels.
  • The pituitary gland regulates the release of hormones through negative feedback mechanisms.
  • Parathyroid hormone is produced by the parathyroid gland to maintain the balance between calcium and phosphorus in the body.
  • Iodine is essential for the thyroid gland to function.
  • Exophthalmos is characterized by abnormal bulging or protrusion of the eyes.
  • Thyroid hormone regulates the metabolic rate and influences the growth and development of the body.
  • Cushing syndrome is a disorder characterized by an excess of free circulating cortisol from the adrenal cortex.
  • A complete blood count and chemistry profile can determine a client's general status and rule out disorders.
  • The hypothalamus fine-tunes and regulates the release of hormones through negative feedback mechanisms.
  • The pituitary gland was originally identified as the master gland.
  • Growth hormone (GH) is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.
  • The hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormone, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and corticotropin-releasing hormone.
  • Somatostatin is secreted by the hypothalamus to help regulate growth in the body.
  • Calcitonin inhibits the release of calcium from bone into the extracellular fluid.

Test your knowledge of the endocrine system with questions about pituitary tumors, parathyroid glands, and hormone regulation. Explore diagnostic tests, hormone physiology, and metabolic rate regulation.

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