Chapter 24 | Endocrine Functions of the Pancreas

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What is one of the rapid actions of insulin according to the text?

Activation of glycolytic enzymes

Which tissue shows an increase in glucose entry, fatty acid synthesis, and triglyceride deposition due to insulin?

Adipose tissue

What effect does insulin have on glycogen synthesis in muscle?

Increase glycogen synthesis

Which enzyme is inhibited by insulin according to the text?

Phosphorylase

What is the effect of insulin on protein catabolism in muscle?

Decrease protein catabolism

Which process does insulin activate in adipose tissue?

Increase glucose entry

What is a common symptom of diabetes?

Polydipsia

Which of the following happens in diabetes due to reduced entry of glucose into peripheral tissues?

Hyperglycemia

What is a potential complication of long-standing diabetes involving retinal scarring?

Diabetic retinopathy

Which of the following is a microvascular complication of diabetes?

Diabetic nephropathy

What contributes to the macrovascular abnormalities in diabetes?

Accelerated atherosclerosis

What type of abnormalities does diabetic neuropathy involve?

Autonomic nervous system and peripheral nerve abnormalities

Which substance inhibits the secretion of insulin in the pancreas?

Somatostatin

What can cause selective destruction of the B cells of the pancreatic islets?

Pancreatectomy

What effect does SS 28 have on insulin secretion?

Inhibits insulin secretion

Which of the following is a stimulator of insulin secretion?

β-Keto acids

What is a symptom that can result from hyperglycemia?

Polyuria

What hormone is found in the D cells of pancreatic islets and inhibits the secretion of insulin?

Somatostatin

What is measured clinically as an integrated index of diabetic control?

Hemoglobin A1c concentration

Which of the following substances increases the secretion of somatostatin in the pancreas?

Glucose

In diabetes, what happens to the rate at which amino acids are catabolized?

Increases

What leads to polydipsia in cases of hyperglycemia?

Dehydration

What role does SS 14 play in the pancreas?

Inhibits insulin, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide secretion

Why is there glycosuria in cases of hyperglycemia?

Excess glucose for renal reabsorption

What is the primary cause of clinical diabetes according to the text?

Autoimmune destruction of B cells in the pancreas

What distinguishes type 1 diabetes mellitus from type 2 diabetes mellitus?

Autoimmune destruction of B cells

Which ancient term was used to describe conditions with a large urine volume, one type being sweet-tasting urine?

Diabetes mellitus

What type of diabetes is characterized by dysregulation of insulin release and insulin resistance in peripheral tissues?

Type 2 diabetes

Which type of diabetes usually presents in children?

Type 1 diabetes

What is the defining characteristic of 'diabetes mellitus' according to the text?

Sweet-tasting urine

What is the primary function of insulin in regulating metabolism?

Promoting glucose uptake into cells

Which of the following is a hormone secreted by the pancreas that regulates ion transport in the intestine?

Pancreatic polypeptide

Which type of cells in the islets of Langerhans are also known as δ cells?

D cells

What is the role of somatostatin in islet cell secretion regulation?

Inhibiting glucagon secretion

Which hormone plays a crucial role in regulating the intermediary metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats?

Insulin

What is the function of glucagon in the regulation of metabolism?

Accelerating glycogen breakdown

What is the effect of insulin on ketogenesis in the liver?

Decreased

Which of the following is NOT an effect of insulin on muscle tissue?

Increased ketone uptake

What is the primary effect of insulin on glucose transporters in cells?

Increased K+ uptake

What does insulin do to the release of gluconeogenic amino acids in muscle tissue?

Decreases the release

In which tissue does insulin play a role in the activation of lipoprotein lipase?

Adipose tissue

What effect does insulin have on fatty acid synthesis in the liver?

Increases fatty acid synthesis

What is the term used to describe the situation in diabetes where there is extracellular glucose excess and intracellular glucose deficiency?

Starvation in the midst of plenty

Microvascular abnormalities in diabetes include proliferative scarring of the retina leading to blindness. What is this condition called?

Diabetic retinopathy

What is the primary cause of macrovascular abnormalities in diabetes?

Accelerated atherosclerosis

In diabetic nephropathy, what complication can result from the renal disease associated with diabetes?

Chronic kidney disease

What type of nerves are involved in diabetic neuropathy?

Autonomic nerves and peripheral nerves

What is the term for the situation in diabetes where weight loss occurs despite increased appetite?

Polyphagia

Which of the following factors is known to inhibit the secretion of insulin in the pancreas?

Somatostatin 14

What is the effect of α-Adrenergic stimulators on insulin secretion?

Stimulation

Which substance increases somatostatin secretion in the pancreas?

CCK

How does SS 28 differ from SS 14 in terms of inhibiting insulin secretion?

SS 28 is more active

Which factor stimulates insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon secretion?

Intestinal hormones

What is the primary role of somatostatin in pancreatic islets?

Inhibiting insulin and glucagon secretion

What is the fundamental defect in type 2 diabetes that most abnormalities can be traced back to?

Reduced entry of glucose into peripheral tissues

Which characteristic is not typically observed in a patient with diabetes?

Weight gain

What is the primary therapeutic approach in managing type 1 diabetes?

Provision of exogenous insulin

What is the main focus of lifestyle changes in early type 2 diabetes according to the text?

Dietary alterations or increased exercise

Which action characterizes insulin-sensitizing drugs in type 2 diabetes management?

Enhancing glucose entry into peripheral tissues

What paradoxical situation is described as 'starvation in the midst of plenty' in the context of type 2 diabetes?

'Peripheral' tissues in a state of starvation despite high blood glucose levels

What is the term used to describe the situation in diabetes where there is extracellular glucose excess and intracellular glucose deficiency?

Starvation in the midst of plenty

Which complication of diabetes involves proliferative scarring of the retina leading to blindness?

Diabetic retinopathy

What leads to weight loss in diabetes despite an increased appetite?

Starvation in the midst of plenty

Which type of disease is diabetic nephropathy?

Microvascular disease

What is the main cause of macrovascular abnormalities in diabetes according to the text?

Increased plasma LDL

Which condition results from renal disease associated with diabetes?

Chronic kidney disease

'Starvation in the midst of plenty' is primarily caused by what underlying defect in diabetes?

Reduced entry of glucose into tissues

What is the result of accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes?

Increased incidence of stroke

Learn about the various factors that stimulate or inhibit insulin secretion in the pancreas related to carbohydrate metabolism in the endocrine system. This table summarizes stimulators like glucose and amino acids, as well as inhibitors like somatostatin and 2-deoxyglucose.

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