DNA Extraction: Introduction and Structure

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What is the main purpose of DNA extraction?

To isolate DNA in a biological sample for further investigations

Where is genomic DNA located in eukaryotic cells?

Nucleus

What is the structure of DNA?

Double helical

What is the purpose of coiling the long linear DNA strands into a tightly packed structure?

To fit the DNA in a very small nucleus

Which macromolecules need to be separated from DNA during the extraction process?

Proteins, RNA, and lipids

In which field is DNA extraction particularly useful?

Forensics investigations

What does DNA extraction allow scientists to obtain?

DNA in a relatively purified form

Which biological samples can be used for DNA extraction in forensics investigations?

Blood, hair, and skin

Why is DNA considered the molecule of life?

All of the above

What are deoxynucleotides?

Polymers that make up each strand of DNA.

What is the main purpose of cell lysis in DNA extraction?

To release genomic DNA from the nucleus

What is the specific function of Sodium chloride in the cell lysis solution?

To osmotically shock the cells

What is the role of Sodium dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) in the cell lysis solution?

To destruct the cellular and nuclear membranes

What is the function of Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) in the cell lysis solution?

To chelate metal ions that act as a cofactor for nucleases

What is the main purpose of Proteinase K in the cell lysis solution?

To digest histone and other proteins

What is the function of Tris-HCL in the cell lysis solution?

To maintain pH optimum for proteinase K activity

What is the purpose of adding Phenol: Chloroform: Isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1) in the purification stage of DNA extraction?

To promote partitioning of proteins and lipids into the organic phase

What is the main goal of deprotonation in DNA extraction?

To extract DNA from the protein-nucleic acid complex

Which ingredient in the cell lysis solution inhibits the function of nucleases to prevent DNA destruction?

(EDTA) Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid

Which component promotes the partitioning of proteins and lipids into the organic phase during DNA extraction?

Phenol: Chloroform: Isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1)

Learn about the role of DNA as the molecule of life and its double helical structure, along with the location of genomic DNA in eukaryotic cells. Understand the importance of DNA in passing down instructions from parents to children.

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