CHAPTER 2 HARD

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Which component on the system board controls the communication for the entire computer system?

System board or main board or motherboard

What is the main function of the Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) in the CPU?

Performs arithmetic and logical operations

What is the purpose of flash memory in the system unit?

To store information that can be updated and is non-volatile

In the context of system unit expansion, what do expansion slots provide?

A connection point for specialized cards or circuit boards

What is the main function of ports in the system unit?

To connect external devices to the system unit

In the client/server computing model, where is the user point of entry?

Client

What technology standard did business firms seriously start using to tie their disparate networks together after 1995?

TCP/IP

Which model of computing provides access to a shared pool of computing resources over a network, often the Internet?

Cloud Computing Model

What determines the power of personal computers according to the text?

Speed, Capacity, and Flexibility

What types of system units are mentioned in the text?

Desktops and Laptops

What type of readers interpret encoded information stored on debit, credit, and identification cards?

Magnetic card readers

Which device uses handwriting recognition software and is commonly used on tablets?

Stylus

What type of mouse emits and senses light to detect mouse movement, and can be used on any surface?

Optical mouse

Which output device is known for presenting visual images of text and graphics, and is often referred to as soft copy?

Flat-panel monitor

What type of image capturing device captures images digitally and stores them in memory?

Digital camera

When did the general-purpose mainframe and minicomputer era begin?

1959

What marked the beginning of widespread commercial use of mainframe computers?

Introduction of IBM 1401 and 7090 transistorized machines

What made mainframe computers powerful enough to support thousands of online remote terminals?

Introduction of the IBM 360 series

What launched a spate of personal desktop productivity software tools in the 1980s and early 1990s?

Proliferation of PCs

Which event had a significant impact on both home and corporate users?

Proliferation of PCs in the 1980s

What is the function of the read-write head of a hard disk?

It alters the magnetic charges of the disk’s surface to represent 1s and 0s

What is the primary function of secondary storage?

Permanent storage

Which performance enhancement involves grouping multiple disk drives to work together as a single unit?

RAID

What is the process of saving information to storage called?

Writing

Which type of printers uses a laser light beam to produce images?

Laser printers

What is the capacity range of USB drives or flash drives?

1 GB to 256 GB

How are 3D-ICs different from traditional printed circuit boards?

They involve a transition from printed circuit boards to three-dimensional integrated circuits

What is the primary advantage of using cloud storage services?

File sharing and collaboration

Which type of optical disc holds over 128 gigabytes (GB) of data?

Portable optical discs

What is the defining characteristic of nanotechnology?

It involves building materials at the atomic scale

What is the primary function of system software?

To run computer hardware and manage resources

Which type of software is typically bundled with a computer's operating system?

System software

What is the purpose of programming software?

To develop programs and applications

What is the primary advantage of application software?

Enhancing the functionality of the computer

Which category of software is designed to cause harm to computer systems or networks?

Malicious software

What is one example of programming software?

Compiler

Which type of software is designed to be publicly accessible so that anyone can see, modify, and distribute the code as they see fit?

Open source

Which type of software is provided for free on a trial basis with the understanding that the user may need or want to pay for it later if satisfied with the product usage?

Shareware

What is the main purpose of system software?

To manage resources available in the system

In programming software, which category includes languages like C#, Java, and Python that are user-oriented and designed to convert algorithms into program code?

High-level programming software

What does the term 'closed source' in software refer to?

Software whose source code is not freely accessible

Which component of programming software quickly translates the entire source program in a high-level language into an equivalent program in machine language?

Compiler

What does Disk Cleanup utility program do in Windows Operating Systems?

Identifies and eliminates nonessential files

What is the main function of Presentation Software in the context of application software?

Construct sequences of words and pictures for presentations

What is the primary purpose of Educational Software?

Used solely for educational reasons

How does Multimedia Software contribute to content creation?

Produces interactive content using text, audio, images, and video

What do Utility Suites in System Software typically do?

Combine several programs into one package

In the context of System Software, what can Web Browsers do?

Retrieve data from the internet

Which of the following statements best describes the function of system software?

Managing computer resources and providing security

What is the distinguishing feature of embedded operating systems such as those used in smartphones and smartwatches?

They are less complicated and more specialized for wireless

What is a key characteristic of Linux, which makes it an attractive alternative to Windows for some users?

It is non-proprietary and free from the web

What is the main purpose of virtualization in system software?

To support multiple operating systems on a single physical machine

Which type of specialized program is designed to recognize and correct problems on a computer?

Troubleshooting or diagnostic programs

What distinguishes Mac OS X El Capitan from OS X Yosemite, according to the text?

Improved power management

Which of the following best describes the function of an assembler in system software?

It converts assembly language program into machine code

What is the primary role of a debugger in system software?

To test and debug other programs

What is the main function of an interpreter in programming software?

To execute code immediately before moving on to the following line

What is the primary function of an integrated development environment (IDE) in software development?

To help programmers develop software code efficiently

What is the main purpose of the 'average' function in the provided programming examples?

To return the average of the given array

In which programming example are lexical variable scope, recursion, and static type system mentioned?

// Input array int num[] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };

Test your knowledge about input and output devices with this quiz. Learn about keyboards, pointing devices, game controllers, styluses, scanning devices, and more.

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