Complications of Diabetes: Hyperglycemia Causes

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17 Questions

What are the two key metabolic defects contributing to insulin resistance mentioned in the text?

Failure of B-cells to continue to increase insulin secretion

Which type of diabetes mellitus can be entirely attributed to genetics according to the text?

Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY)

What is a characteristic difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes concerning weight?

Type 1 is usually underweight while Type 2 is usually overweight

Which statement is true regarding the pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

It is caused by insulin resistance of tissues

What are some common treatment modalities for Diabetes Type 2 according to the text?

Diet, exercise, progressing to tablets, then insulin

Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for Type 2 Diabetes?

Excessive insulin production

What percentage of diagnosed cases does Type 2 Diabetes make up according to the text?

80%

Which type of diabetes mellitus is characterized by a gradual onset of symptoms?

Type 2 Diabetes

What is the approximate percentage of individuals with Type 1 Diabetes who have a genetic predisposition?

80%

Which of the following statements is true about Type 1 Diabetes?

It involves autoimmune destruction of beta cells

In Type 2 Diabetes, what happens to most individuals regarding insulin production?

They produce enough insulin but the body doesn't respond properly to it

What is the key difference in the onset of symptoms between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes?

Type 2 has a gradual onset, while Type 1 has a sudden onset

In the pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes, what role do genetic loci play according to genome-wide association studies?

>260 genetic loci are associated with Type 2 Diabetes

What is the approximate concordance rate for Type 2 Diabetes in monozygotic twins?

~40%

Which type of diabetes requires insulin injections for life?

Type 1 Diabetes

Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) differs from Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes in that it is:

Inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern

Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) demonstrates a strong family history of diabetes because:

There is a vertical transmission through multiple generations

Explore how hyperglycemia in diabetes leads to complications such as vascular abnormalities, renal damage, peripheral nerve lesions, and eye lesions. Understand the mechanisms like glycosylation of proteins, increased metabolism, reactive oxygen species, and reduced beta cell function.

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