Common Health Problems in Toddlers Quiz

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29 Questions

Which layer of the skin is affected in a second-degree burn?

Epidermis and part of the dermis

What is a common cause of first-degree burns?

Sunburn

Which burn classification involves skin appearing white or charred and lacking sensation?

Third-degree

How do second-degree burns typically heal?

By tissue regeneration over 2-6 weeks

In a fourth-degree burn, what structures does the burn extend into?

Muscle and bone

What is the 2nd greatest cause of unintentional injury in 1-4 year olds?

Drowning

Which type of burn is caused by exposure to ultraviolet rays of the sun?

Radiation burn

Which developmental aspect involves seeing, hearing, tasting, touching, and smelling?

Sensory/Cognitive

What type of burn can be caused by falling on a treadmill in motion?

Friction burn

Which type of injury is most common in children aged 5 to 14 years old?

Burns

What is the most common type of burn caused by scalding liquids or flames?

Thermal burn

What is the initial step in managing minor burns?

Immediate application of cool water

What is the recommended treatment for moderate burns to prevent infection?

Application of Silver sulfadiazine and dressing

Why is it crucial to ask where a fire occurred in burn cases?

To assess the extent of respiratory involvement

What is the purpose of debridement in burn injuries?

To remove dead or infected skin tissue

Which therapy is recommended for severe burns to prevent contractures?

Physical therapy

What fluid shift occurs after a burn injury leading to hypovolemia?

Increased capillary permeability

Which immediate effects are associated with iron poisoning in children?

Abdominal pain and diarrhea

What is the recommended therapeutic management for caustic poisoning in a child?

Intubation or tracheotomy

What is a common symptom of lead poisoning in children?

Encephalitis

How does large iron ingestion affect the gastric mucosa in children?

Leads to severe gastric irritation

What is a potential indication for administering Deferoxamine in iron poisoning?

To reduce kidney damage

Which of the following is a key factor indicating unsafe lead levels in children?

Blood level of lead >5µg/dl

What is the primary step in managing poisoning at home according to the text?

Calling the National Poison Control Center

Which of the following is a symptom of acetaminophen poisoning mentioned in the text?

Nausea and vomiting

What is the recommended action for conscious victims in case of caustic poisoning?

Administering activated charcoal

What is a significant effect of ingesting strong alkali in caustic poisoning as per the text?

Tissue necrosis in the mouth and throat

What is the antidote mentioned in the text for acetaminophen poisoning?

Acetylcysteine

What should be avoided in the case of caustic poisoning according to the text?

Inducing vomiting

Study Notes

Toddler Development

  • Gross motor development includes walking, running, and climbing
  • Fine motor development includes feeding oneself, drawing, and other skills
  • Sensory/Cognitive development includes seeing, hearing, tasting, touching, and smelling
  • Language/Communication development includes saying single words and then sentences
  • Social/Emotional development includes playing with others, taking turns, and doing fantasy play

Health Problems Common in Toddlers

  • Burns are injuries to body tissue caused by excessive heat (greater than 40°C or 104°F)
  • Burns are the 2nd greatest cause of unintentional injury in 1-4 year olds and the 3rd most common cause in children 5-14 years old
  • Every day, over 300 children are treated in emergency rooms for burn-related injuries

Types of Burns

  • Thermal burns: caused by external heat sources (e.g. hot metals, scalding liquids, steam, and flames)
  • Radiation burns: caused by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet rays (e.g. from the sun, cancer treatments, or nuclear power plant leaks)
  • Chemical burns: caused by strong acids, alkalis, detergents, or solvents
  • Electrical burns: caused by electrical current
  • Friction burns: caused by direct damage to cells and heat generated by friction (e.g. falling on a treadmill or rope burn)

Burn Assessment

  • Airway: beware of inhalation and rapid airway compromise
  • Breathing: assess for respiratory involvement
  • Circulation: assess for fluid replacement
  • Disability: assess for compartment syndrome
  • Exposure: calculate the percentage area of the burn using the Rule of Nines

Classification and Description of Burns

  • First degree: affects only the epidermis, appears red, dry, and with no blisters, feels mildly painful, heals in 1-10 days
  • Second degree: involves the epidermis and part of the dermis, appears red, blistered, and may be swollen, very painful, heals in 2-6 weeks
  • Third degree: involves the epidermis and full extent of the dermis, appears white or charred, lacks sensation, requires skin grafting, heals in months
  • Fourth degree: extends into muscle and bone, requires skin grafting, may cause permanent damage

Poisoning

  • Common causes of poisoning: soap, cosmetics, detergents, plants, OTC drugs, vitamins, aspirin, and acetaminophen
  • Emergency management at home: call the National Poison Control Center, provide information on what was swallowed, child's weight and age, and how long ago the poisoning occurred
  • Emergency management at the healthcare facility: administer activated charcoal, provide information on the child's present condition

Acetaminophen Poisoning

  • Causes extreme permanent liver destruction
  • Symptoms: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and increased SGPT and SGOT
  • Antidote: acetylcysteine or activated charcoal

Caustic Poisoning

  • Causes burns and tissue necrosis in the mouth, esophagus, and stomach
  • Assessment: pain in mouth and throat, drooling saliva
  • Therapeutic management: don't let the child vomit, bring to the nearest hospital, don't administer activated charcoal, IV morphine for pain, X-ray, laryngoscopy, and esophagoscopy

Iron Poisoning

  • Causes severe gastric irritation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain
  • Immediate effects: Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
  • Effects after 6-12 hours: melena, hematemesis, cyanosis, vasomotor collapse, coagulation defects, hepatic injury, and lethargy
  • Therapeutic management: don't give activated charcoal, stomach lavage, administer cathartics, administer Maalox or Mylanta, IV or IM Deferoxamine, GI X-ray, and liver studies

Lead Poisoning

  • Causes hypochromic, microcytic anemia, kidney destruction, and encephalitis or inflammation of brain cells
  • Assessment: lethargy, impulsiveness, learning difficulties, and blood lead level >5µg/dl
  • Therapeutic management: chelation therapy, removal of the source of lead, and support for symptoms

Test your knowledge about common health problems that toddlers may experience, including burns, poisoning, child abuse, cerebral palsy, and common injuries like drowning and aspiration. Learn about different aspects of toddler development such as gross motor skills, fine motor skills, sensory/cognitive abilities, language/communication skills, and social/emotional development.

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