Cell Membrane Structure and Functions

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What is the function of lysosomes in cells?

Digestive organs of the cells

What activates the hydrolases and inactivates bacterial metabolic systems within lysosomes?

Acid at a pH of about 5.0

Which of the following is NOT a function of lysosomes?

Energy production

What process involves delivering intracellular components and dysfunctional organelles to the lysosome for degradation and recycling?

Autophagy

What is one of the key roles of autophagy in cells?

Contributing to tissue development and cell survival

What is the purpose of aquaporins in the cell membrane?

To facilitate the passage of water through the membrane

Which process involves the movement of substances into or out of the cell with the expenditure of energy?

Active transport

What is the main function of pumps in active transport?

To force molecules from an area of low concentration to high concentration

Which ions does the Sodium Potassium Pump move in opposite directions?

Potassium ions out and Sodium ions in

Where does the energy come from in primary active transport?

Breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

How is the energy derived in secondary active transport?

From stored energy in ionic concentration differences

What is the function of the cell membrane in regulating exchange with the environment?

Controlling the elimination of cellular wastes

Which part of the cell contains DNA and directs cell activities?

Nucleus

What is the principal function of proteins in the cell membrane?

To provide structural support by holding the cytoskeleton in place

How does the cell membrane contribute to physical isolation?

By separating intracellular fluid from extracellular fluid

What happens if there is an alteration in the cell membrane according to the text?

Decreased recognition and response to molecules

Which part of the cell is referred to as little organs that do specific functions?

Organelles

What type of substances can easily pass through the lipid core of the bilayer?

Lipophilic substances

Which role does cholesterol play in the lipid bilayer?

Makes membranes impermeable to small water-soluble molecules

What is the primary function of sphingolipids in the lipid bilayer?

Protection from harmful environmental factors

Which ions are repelled by the hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer?

$H^+$ and $Cl^-$

What is the main role of structural proteins in the cell membrane?

Maintaining cell shape and connecting membrane to cytoskeleton

Which molecules determine the degree of permeability of the lipid bilayer to water-soluble constituents?

Cholesterol molecules

What is the main concept of the fluid mosaic model?

Proteins and phospholipids are able to move laterally in the membrane.

Which type of lipid makes up the majority of the cell membrane?

Phospholipids

Where are the hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions of phospholipids oriented in the cell membrane?

Hydrophilic towards the outer surface and hydrophobic towards the inner surface.

Which component makes up the smallest percentage of the cell membrane composition?

Cholesterol

What is the function of glycoproteins and glycolipids in the cell membrane?

They are involved in cell signaling and recognition.

What is the key characteristic of a transmembrane protein?

It spans across the entire cell membrane.

Explore the structure and functions of the cell membrane, including specialized junctions, the fluid mosaic model, lipid composition, and different types of proteins. Learn about the role of membrane proteins in stabilizing tissue structure and the constant lateral movement of proteins and phospholipids in the membrane.

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