Cell Biology: Nucleus and Cytoskeleton

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10 Questions

What is the main function of nucleic acids?

Transfer of genetic information and protein synthesis

What makes a nucleotide distinct?

Nitrogen base

How is the DNA structure described?

Double-helix or double-helical structure

Where are organelles found?

In the cytoplasm

What is the function of the cell membrane?

To control what enters or leaves the cell

What are the heads of phospholipids made of?

Glycerol & phosphate, hydrophilic

Which organelle controls the normal activities of the cell?

Nucleus

Which organelle is responsible for generating cellular energy (ATP)?

Mitochondria

What is the function of nucleolus in the cell?

Making ribosomes that produce proteins

Which organelle is involved in pulling chromosome pairs apart during cell division?

Centrioles

Study Notes

Nucleic Acids and DNA Structure

  • The main function of nucleic acids is to store and transmit genetic information.
  • A nucleotide is distinct due to its three components: a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
  • The DNA structure is described as a double helix, where two complementary strands are twisted together with sugar and phosphate molecules making up the backbone, and nitrogenous bases projecting inward from the backbone.

Cell Organelles and Functions

  • Organelles are found within eukaryotic cells, which are cells with a true nucleus.
  • The function of the cell membrane is to regulate the movement of substances in and out of the cell.
  • The heads of phospholipids are made of hydrophilic (water-loving) phosphate groups.

Cellular Control and Energy Generation

  • The nucleus is the organelle that controls the normal activities of the cell.
  • The mitochondria is the organelle responsible for generating cellular energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Cellular Functions and Division

  • The function of the nucleolus in the cell is to synthesize and assemble ribosomes.
  • The spindle fibers are the organelle involved in pulling chromosome pairs apart during cell division.

Test your knowledge of cell biology with this quiz covering the structure and functions of the nucleus, nucleolus, cytoskeleton, microtubules, microfilaments, and centrioles.

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