Carbohydrates and Monosaccharides Quiz

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11 Questions

What are the monomers of carbohydrates called?

Monosaccharides

Which of the following elements are found in all carbohydrates?

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen

What is the general formula for a monosaccharide?

$C_nH_{2n}O_n$

Which compound is a very important monosaccharide that can provide energy or be polymerized?

Glucose

What category do larger carbohydrates like sucrose and starch belong to?

Polysaccharides

How many structural isomers does glucose have?

Two

Which type of bond is formed between two monosaccharides in a disaccharide?

Glycosidic bond

What is the product of combining glucose and galactose?

Lactose

In a hydrolysis reaction of a disaccharide, what is added to break the bond?

Water

Which carbon atoms are involved in the 1-4 glycosidic bond?

Carbon 1 and Carbon 4

What type of reaction creates a disaccharide by removing a water molecule?

Condensation reaction

Study Notes

Carbohydrates

  • Carbohydrates are biological molecules that store energy and provide structural support to plant cells.
  • They are classified into three groups based on the number of units they are made of.

Monosaccharides

  • Monosaccharides are the monomers of carbohydrates and are also known as sugars.
  • They are soluble in water and have two main functions: providing energy or acting as building blocks to create larger molecules.
  • Examples of monosaccharides include glucose, galactose, and fructose.
  • The general formula for a monosaccharide is CnH2nOn, where n is the number of carbon atoms it contains.
  • Carbohydrates contain three elements: carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (CHO).

Glucose

  • Glucose is a crucial monosaccharide that can provide energy or be polymerized to form structural support molecules (cellulose) or energy storage molecules (glycogen and starch).
  • Glucose has two structural isomers: α glucose and β glucose.
  • The only difference between these isomers is the arrangement of the hydrogen (H) and hydroxyl group (OH) on carbon 1.

Disaccharides

  • Disaccharides are formed by bonding two monosaccharides together through a glycosidic bond, created by a condensation reaction.
  • Three key disaccharides to remember are:
    • Maltose (glucose + glucose)
    • Lactose (glucose + galactose)
    • Sucrose (glucose + fructose)

Condensation and Hydrolysis Reactions

  • A condensation reaction creates a disaccharide by removing a water molecule from the hydroxyl group (OH) on carbon 1 and carbon 4 of two monosaccharides.
  • The resulting bond is called a glycosidic bond.
  • Disaccharides can be broken down into monosaccharides through a hydrolysis reaction, where a water molecule is added to break the bond.

Test your knowledge on carbohydrates, which are key biological molecules that store energy and provide structural support to plant cells. Learn about the classification of carbohydrates based on the number of units they are made of and the common examples of monosaccharides.

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