BMS quiz compilation

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By BeauteousHeliotrope8922

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184 Questions

What are the three components of a nucleotide?

Which of the following regarding bond types is correct?

Fatty acids can attach to a glycerol backbone via an ester linkage to form a:

What is the name of the functional group NH2?

What type of enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate from ATP to another molecule other than water?

Which of the following molecules are produced during beta oxidation and can feed into the production of ATP? More than one will apply:

Which of the following lists of reactions includes ONLY catabolic reactions?

Which of the following molecules cannot feed into BOTH anabolic and catabolic reactions?

Which of the following is not a part of the matrix of connective tissue?

Which of the following type of epithelium is most suited to providing mechanical protection (i.e. from abrasion, trauma)?

Which of the following is considered, "Connective tissue proper"?

What does the "p" mean when we use the term "pH"?

Substance X is 50% deprotonated at a pH of 8.5 and almost 100% deprotonated at a pH of 9.5. Which of the following best describes X?

Choose the TRUE statements regarding the Henderson-Hasselbach equation:

A particular biochemical reaction is endergonic - however, it occurs spontaneously within the cell. Choose all valid explanations below:

Which of the following enzymes catalyze the conversion of Glucose to Glucose-6-Phosphate?

Which of the following enzymes catalyze the conversion of Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate + dihydoxyacetone phosphate?

Why is the malate shuttle needed in gluconeogenesis?

In order to convert pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the first bypass reaction of gluconeogenesis, which two enzymes are required?

Glutamine synthetase catalyzes which of the following:

What is the common precursor for the aspartate family of amino acids?

What two molecules combine to start the urea cycle?

What is the major force that drives gas movement in the microcirculation?

Which of the following vascular structure will contain deoxygenated blood?

Which amino acid is this?

Name the amino acid:

What is the name of the functional group highlighted with the red box?

What enzyme carries out the reaction below?

NADH/NAD+ are derivatives of _________. In the reaction provided ____________ is being reduced.

Which of the following is TRUE regarding complimentary base pairing in DNA?

Which of the following bases is not found in RNA ?

Compare prokaryote and eukaryote transcription. Which of the following are correct?

If a protein is destined for a lysosome, what sort of sequence will it contain to direct translation to the rough ER?

What nucleotide is modified and added to the 5’ end of the mRNA transcript during processing in eukaryotes?

When a heavy metal such as lead (Pb+2) interacts with bonds within a protein, it can denature the protein. Which of the following bonds are vulnerable to this type of denaturation?

Which of the following is an example of enzyme regulation via irreversible covalent modification?

Which of the following is FALSE regarding enzymes?

Which of the following is an example of enzyme regulation via reversible covalent modification?

What kind of bonds form the primary structure of a protein?

Which of the following is true of any pseudo-first order reaction?

In a pseudo-first order hydrolysis reaction, how does doubling the amount of water affect the rate of the reaction?

What important piece of information can be gained from Michaelis Menten kinetics?

The right border of the heart is formed by:

The first heart sound (Lub) is associated with:

Which of the following statements are true regarding muscular movements driving ventilation?

When examining the posterior thorax, at what spinal level does the lung tissue usually descend to when your patient takes a deep breath?

PDK1 (phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1) is a key intracellular signaling component that:

Which of the following are true of the Gs type of G-protein?

Choose the TRUE statements re: G-protein activation or inactivation.

What are the components of the common lipid membrane component sphingolipids?

Which of the following statements regarding the cytoskeleton is true?

Which of the following modifications would contribute to the most drastic loss of fluidity to the membrane?

Which of the following statements regarding the cytoskeleton is false?

Fill in the following blanks with the best answers below:

The lipid bilayer is permeable to (i) _____________ molecules such as carbon dioxide & steroids, but is impermeable to (ii) _____________ molecules such as glucose

Which of the following statements is true regarding Starling forces?

Which of the following is correct regarding Ohm's law?

Choose the factors that decrease the flow of fluid through a tube, as per Poiseuille's law:

Which of the following is the correct Nernst potential for K+ in most cells?

According to Fick's law, the flow/flux of substances through the cell membrane are affected by all except the following:

Which of the following describes the correct order of translation initiation in eukaryotes?

Which nucleotides have a double-ring base?

Which nucleotides have a single ring base?

Match the following terms:

What forces are needed to stabilize the DNA double helix?

Consider the negative charge between phosphate groups within the sugar backbone.

Would these adjacent negative charges repel one another and destabilize the helix?

Which of the following bonds contribute to the stability of the DNA helix?

Nucleosomes are the structural unit for packaging DNA.

Euchromatin is a densely packed form of chromatin.

Humans have 46 pairs of chromosomes.

What is the name of the non-coding sequence removed during splicing?

Which of the following RNA molecules directly codes for proteins?

Match the following RNA types with their functions:

An Anticodon is what?

Wobble hypothesis: despite 64 possible combinations of nucleotides into a 3-nucleotide codon, there are only 20 amino acids.

Match the following types of RNA to their function:

Which of the following RNA molecules are involved in gene regulation?

What enzyme moves along the DNA, unwinding the DNA helix just ahead of the active site for polymerization?

What happens during the initiation phase of transcription?

During transcription which of the following proteins bind the TATA box within the promotor region?

Which of the following is correct regarding RNA processing?

The first amino acid added to any polypeptide is:

Active transport: is a protein that moves a substance across a membrane against a concentration gradient using ATP.

What are some examples of active transports?

match the following transporters to their function:

What functions does the cytoskeleton perform?

Match the following terms with their functions:

Match the following Intermediate filaments:

What are the components of a phospholipid?

Lipids can be broken down into two main classes: fatty acid, and isoprenoid

If both fatty acids are linked to the glycerol backbone with an ester link, it's called a Plasmalogen.

If one fatty acid is linked to the glycerol backbone with an ester link while the other has an ether link, it is called a phosphatidate.

What molecule is this?

What molecule is this?

What molecule is this?

Name this molecule.

Name this molecule

What are the components of a glycerophospholipid?

What nucleotide is used to help with the addition of head group to phosphatidic acid?

Choose the true statement regarding cholesterol:

Match the following steps of cholesterol synthesis to its function:

How many acetyl CoA are needed to make Mevalonate?

The thick muscular wall that separates the left and right ventricle.

Atrioventricular valves are floppy in nature and are anchored by:

What causes the "Dub" sound in the heart?

What is stenosis?

Regurgitation is when the valve doesn't close fully.

Systole is when the heart muscles contract and diastole is when the heart muscles relax.

What statement regarding ficks law is true?

Ficks law states that flow decreases when thickness of a membrane increases.

Match the structures of the respiratory system:

Movement of gas is driven by concentration gradients (diffusion) in the lungs.

The volume of the thoracic cavity increases causing a increase in the intrathoracic pressure.

Drop in intrathoracic pressure = drop in pressure of the airspaces of the lungs = movement of air from the atmosphere into the lungs.

Fissure dividing the superior lobe from the middle lobe, anteriorly: 4th rib -4th intercostal space

Inferior lobe airspaces descend from the(9th/10th) ____ rib posteriorly to the(11th/12th) _____rib on deep inspiration.

Fluid in the pleural space is called what?

What is true about consolidation?

IncRNA can modify transcription by which of the following?

Match the following:

JAK (janus Kinase) phosphorylates and activates transcription factors called STATS

Where is the thyroid receptor found?

Thyroid hormone receptor is located in the nucleus, already bound to the DNA. Positively regulated genes will have what type of effect when the thyroid hormone binds to it?

Inside the nucleus, the receptor will bind to a DNA sequence specific to the steroid receptor called:

The net effect is that miRNAs with RISC (RNA-induced silencing complex) act to silence mRNA post-transcription.

Match the following with their function:

which option lists the seven groups of microorganisms:

Match the following with their function:

Prokaryotes: usually unicellular, DNA housed in the Nucleoid region, DNA is usually circular, flagella, and no membrane-bound organelles

Who introduced the notion that "cells were the foundational unit of life?"

Who was the founder of microbiology?

Who was the founder of taxonomics?

Taxonomics is a system for naming an animal.

What are the 7 levels of classification from top to bottom?

Who had the theory of "abiogeneses" or Spontaneous generation-life emerging from non-living matter.

Who supported the idea of spontaneous generation by leaving gravy in a flask, boiling it to kill bacteria, and letting it sit again?

Who concluded that the microbes in the liquid were the progeny of microbes that had been on the dust particles in the air with the swan neck experiment disproving the spontaneous generation theory?

What is pasturization?

Pasteur hypothesis: Germ theory of disease

Who studied the etiology of infectious disease?

Koch's Postulates include:

  1. The suspected causative agent must be found in every case of the disease.
  2. The agent must be isolated and grown outside the host.
  3. When the agent is introduced to a healthy, susceptible host, the host must get the disease.
  4. The same agent must be found in the diseased experimental host.

Match the following individuals to their contributions:

___________ (Variolation/Jenners vaccine) early method of immunization against smallpox.

________ (Focal point/Focal length/Refractive Index) is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through a particular medium. It is a fundamental optical property that quantifies how much the speed of light is reduced when it travels through a medium compared to its speed in a vacuum.

The ___________ (Focal Point/Focal Length/Refractive Index) is a specific point in space to which parallel rays of light or other waves converge after being reflected, refracted, or diffracted.

________ (Focal Point/Focal Length/Refractive Index) is a key parameter in optics that measures the distance between the optical center of a lens or a curved mirror and its focal point.

Resolution refers to the degree of detail or clarity of an image or the ability of a sensor or system to distinguish between closely spaced objects or features.

Numerical aperture characterizes the the ability of an optical system: NA=n⋅sin(θ)

NA is the numerical aperture. n is the refractive index of the medium between the lens and the specimen. θ is the half-angle of the maximum cone of light that can enter or exit the lens.

Immersion Oil is used to grow hair faster, and stronger.

Match the following microscopes with their functions:

Fluorochromes (fluorescent dyes or fluorophores) are used to visualize and study biologic specimens.

GFP is what?

Advanced optical imaging technique used for high-resolution, three-dimensional imaging of specimens. It offers improved optical sectioning, contrast, and resolution compared to traditional light microscopes.

Refers to a series of images taken at different focal planes along the Z-axis (perpendicular to the imaging plane).

________ (Fixation/Dye; Simple Stain/Differential Staining) a process in biological sample preparation that involves the use of chemical agents to preserve the structure of cells and tissues. Or a technique used in microbiology to affix microorganisms to a slide, allowing them to be stained for microscopic examination.

________ (Fixation/Dye; Simple Stain/Differential Staining) involves the application of multiple stains to a sample, each of which interacts with specific structures, leading to differential coloration.

______ (Fixation/Dye; Simple Stain/Differential Staining) the use of colored substances to enhance the visibility of microorganisms under a microscope.

Gram-_________ (Positive/Negative) Bacteria:

-Thick peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall. -The peptidoglycan layer is closely packed. -Teichoic acids may be present in the cell wall. -No outer membrane outside the peptidoglycan layer.

Gram-_________(Positive/Negative) Bacteria: -Thin peptidoglycan layer in the cell wall. -The peptidoglycan layer is sandwiched between an inner and outer membrane. -Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are present in the outer membrane. -No teichoic acids.

Choose the correct order of the Gram positive procedure.

_______(Electron/Light) Microscopy: Relies on visible light to illuminate specimens. Limited by the wavelength of visible light (around 400-700 nm).

______(Electron/Light) Microscopy: Uses electron beams instead of light for imaging. Electrons have much shorter wavelengths than visible light (about 0.005 nm), providing higher resolution.

Match the following buffers with their function:

What is a protein composed of two subunits called?

What is a protein composed of several subunits called?

What is a protein composed of many subunits called?

What is a repeating structural unit within a multimeric protein called?

What is the Vmax?

What type of inhibition is this?

What type of inhibition is this?

Which inhibition is this?

Name the polar amino acid.

Name the polar amino acid.

Name the polar amino acid.

Name the polar amino acid.

Name the polar amino acid.

Name the non-polar amino acid.

Name the non-polar amino acid.

Name the non polar amino acid.

Name the non-polar amino acid.

Name the non-polar amino acid.

Name the non-polar amino acid.

Name the non-polar amino acid.

Name the non-polar amino acid.

3NA+ ______ (into/out) of the ______ (cytosol/mitochondria) 2K+ _________ (into/out) of the _______ (cytosol, mitochondria)

Nucleosomes are composed of ____ (42/143/147) base pairs.

The highly regulated enzyme catalyzing the rate-limiting step of cholesterol synthesis is______? (Mutase/HMG CoA reductase/Reductase)

Insulin (activates/inhibits) this enzyme. Glucagon (activates/inhibits) this enzyme.

High intracellular cholesterol levels will (increase/decrease) the transcription of this enzyme

Note: list all responses with commas followed by a space (ex: out, in, cytosol, EFC) Answers are case sensitive, so write them out as you see them.

Osmolality refers to the concentration of dissolved particles such as chemicals, minerals, and ions in the blood. A normal serum osmolality range is approximately 275 to 295 mOsm/kg. Which of the following situations would result in fluid moving into the cell?

Description

Test your knowledge on biology and biochemistry with questions about nucleotides, bond types, functional groups, enzymes, and molecules produced during beta oxidation.

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