Bronchiectasis

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RationalTucson
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10 Questions

What is the most common cause of bronchiectasis?

Cystic fibrosis

Which pathogen is the most common cause of exacerbation in patients with bronchiectasis?

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

What radiological finding is characteristic of bronchiectasis on high-resolution CT?

"Signet ring" luminal airway adjacent to an artery

Which genetic test is used for confirming cystic fibrosis diagnosis?

Sweat chloride test

What is a common clinical feature of bronchiectasis?

Recurrent or persistent pneumonia

What is the diagnostic threshold for chloride in sweat when testing for cystic fibrosis?

More than 60 meq/dl

Which antibiotic treatment is recommended for cystic fibrosis exacerbations lasting over 10 days?

Fluoroquinolones

What is the recommended treatment duration for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections in cystic fibrosis patients?

12-18 months

Which therapy is beneficial for non-cystic fibrosis patients to promote mucus clearance?

Inhaled isotonic saline

When is surgery indicated for cystic fibrosis patients?

For lung obstruction by a tumor

Study Notes

Bronchiectasis

  • The most common cause of bronchiectasis is cystic fibrosis

Pathogen and Exacerbation

  • The most common cause of exacerbation in patients with bronchiectasis is Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Radiological Finding

  • The characteristic radiological finding of bronchiectasis on high-resolution CT is dilated bronchi with thickened walls

Cystic Fibrosis Diagnosis

  • Genetic testing for cystic fibrosis diagnosis involves identifying mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene

Clinical Features of Bronchiectasis

  • A common clinical feature of bronchiectasis is recurrent coughing with thick, purulent sputum

Cystic Fibrosis Diagnosis

  • The diagnostic threshold for chloride in sweat when testing for cystic fibrosis is >60 mmol/L

Antibiotic Treatment for Cystic Fibrosis

  • For cystic fibrosis exacerbations lasting over 10 days, antibiotic treatment recommended is combination therapy with a β-lactam and an aminoglycoside

Treatment for MAC Infections

  • The recommended treatment duration for Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections in cystic fibrosis patients is at least 12 months

Mucus Clearance Therapy

  • Airway clearance therapy, such as chest physiotherapy, is beneficial for non-cystic fibrosis patients to promote mucus clearance

Indications for Surgery in Cystic Fibrosis

  • Surgery is indicated for cystic fibrosis patients with localised bronchiectasis or lung transplantation

Learn about bronchiectasis, an acquired disease characterized by the permanent dilatation and destruction of bronchial walls. Explore the factors that contribute to this condition, such as infectious insults, impairment in drainage, airway obstruction, and defects in host defense. Understand the etiology of bronchiectasis, including localized causes like foreign bodies and tumors, and diffuse causes like cystic fibrosis and dyskinetic cilia syndrome.

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