Brain Division Structures Quiz

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Match the following brain division with its structures:

Cerebrum = Telencephalon, Diencephalon Brain Stem = Mesencephalon, Myelencephalon, Metecephalon Cerebellum = Metecephalon, Spinal Chord Spinal Chord = Spinal Chord

Match the following Telencephalon structures with their functions:

Neocortex = Thinking, reasoning, problem solving Hippocampus = Involved in retrieval & storage of info Basal ganglia = Controls conscious & voluntarily movements of skeletal muscles Limbic System (Olfactory Bulb) = Perceives & processes sensory information from environment

Match the following Diencephalon structures with their functions:

Thalamus = Perceives & processes sensory information from environment Hypothalamus = Controls conscious & voluntarily movements of skeletal muscles Pineal body = Involved in retrieval & storage of info Third ventricle = Regulation of sleep and wake cycle

Match the following Metencephalon and Mesencephalon structures with their functions:

Reticular Formation = Regulation of sleep and wake cycle Corpa Qualigemina = Perceives & processes sensory information from environment Cerebellum = Controls conscious & voluntarily movements of skeletal muscles Pons = Involved in retrieval & storage of info

Match the brain structure with its function:

Diencephalon (thalamus) = Acts as relay center for sensory information on its way to cerebral cortex Hypothalamus = Regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and release of hormones Brainstem = Controls breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure, serves as pathway for ascending and descending nerve tracts, and coordinates reflex actions Cerebellum = Controls precise voluntary muscle movements coordination and integrates input from inner ears and muscles

Match the embryonic brain structure with its derivatives:

Prosencephalon = Turns into Telencephalon and Diencephalon Mesencephalon = Forms part of the midbrain Rhombencephalon = Turns into Metencephalon and Myelencephalon Neural tube = Creates presynaptic autonomic neurons of PNS, motor neurons of Peripheral Nervous System, and neurons of Central Nervous System

Match the germ layer derivatives with their structures:

Ectoderm = Creates nervous system, cornea and lens of the eye, and tooth enamel Mesoderm = Forms skeletal system, muscular system, circulatory & lymphatic system, and dermis of skin Endoderm = Produces epithelial lining of digestive tract, lining of respiratory system, liver, and pancreas Neural crest = Creates sensory neurons in Peripheral Nervous System, postsynaptic autonomic neurons, and adrenal medulla

Match the location with the type of neuron cell bodies:

Peripheral Neurons = Cell bodies outside CNS that can be located along spinal cord or near tissue/organs Central Neurons = Located within CNS to process information Presynaptic Autonomic Neurons of PNS = Derived from neural tube and involved in transmitting signals from organ to CNS to muscles/glands Sensory neurons in Peripheral Nervous System = Derived from neural crest and involved in transmitting sensory information

Match the stage of embryonic brain development with its characteristics:

Stage 1 (5 weeks) = Prosencephalon turns into Telencephalon and Diencephalon; Mesencephalon forms part of the midbrain; Rhombencephalon turns into Metencephalon and Myelencephalon Fertilized egg attachment = Forms hypoblast on the inside and epiblast on the outside; separates the developing embryo into sections with mesoderm in the middle Neural tube formation = Creates U-shaped groove which completes enclosing process to form the hollow neural tube; increases in volume as mesoderm thickens Yolk sac closure = Starts to pinch and close on itself at middle of embryo

Match the function with the neural structure it creates:

Presynaptic Autonomic Neurons of PNS = Transmits signals from organ to CNS to muscles/glands Motor Neurons of Peripheral Nervous System = Involved in controlling voluntary muscle movements Neurons of Central Nervous System = Process information within CNS Postsynaptic Autonomic Neurons = Involved in receiving signals from presynaptic autonomic neurons

What are the main structures of the Telencephalon?

Neocortex, Hippocampus, Basal ganglia, Limbic System (Olfactory Bulb), Lateral Ventricles, Amygdala

Identify the structures that make up the Myelencephalon.

Medulla Oblongota, Spinal Chord

What are the functions of the Brain Stem?

Regulation of vital functions such as heart rate and breathing; Relay of sensory and motor signals between the brain and the rest of the body

List the primary functions of the Cerebrum.

Thinking, reasoning, problem solving, decision making; Storage and retrieval of information; Control of conscious and voluntary movements; Processing of sensory information

What are the main functions of the thalamus and hypothalamus in the diencephalon?

Thalamus acts as a relay center for sensory information on its way to the cerebral cortex, while the hypothalamus regulates body temperature, hunger, thirst, and the release of hormones.

Explain the role of the brainstem in the nervous system.

The brainstem controls breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure, serves as a pathway for ascending and descending nerve tracts, and coordinates reflex actions.

What are the primary functions of the cerebellum?

The cerebellum controls precise voluntary muscle movements and coordination, as well as integrating input from the inner ears and muscles.

Explain the role of the spinal cord in reflex actions.

The spinal cord coordinates reflex actions without involving the brain, acting as a highway for signals leaving and going into the brain.

Describe the embryonic origins of the brain and spinal cord.

The brain originates from three primary structures: prosencephalon, mesencephalon, and rhombencephalon. The spinal cord begins as the neural tube created from the ectoderm.

Differentiate between peripheral neurons and central neurons based on their locations.

Peripheral neurons have cell bodies outside the central nervous system and can be located along the spinal cord or near tissues/organs, while central neurons are located within the central nervous system and process information.

Test your knowledge about the major divisions and structures of the brain, including the cerebrum, brain stem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Identify the components of the telencephalon, diencephalon, and more.

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