Biosynthesis of Natural Products Judith K. Costantine Lecture Summary

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What is the primary function of primary metabolites in an organism?

Primary metabolites are closely engaged in the growth, development, and reproduction of an organism.

Define biosynthesis in the context of pharmacognosy.

Biosynthesis is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.

List some examples of primary metabolites.

Primary metabolites include sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids.

What are natural products in the form of?

Natural products are isolated chemical compounds or substances from living organisms.

What are the learning outcomes related to biosynthesis and biosynthetic pathways?

Students should be able to define biosynthesis, understand basic metabolic pathways, explain biosynthetic pathways for secondary metabolites, and identify starting substrates, intermediate compounds, enzymes, and end products.

What is the main focus of the mevalonate pathway in biosynthesis?

The mevalonate pathway is involved in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids and sterols.

What are the precursors of terpenoids in the mevalonate pathway?

Isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP)

What is the starting primary metabolite for terpenoids synthesis in the mevalonate pathway?

Acetyl-CoA

What is the intermediate precursor of the basic 5-carbon building blocks in the mevalonate pathway?

Mevalonic acid

What is the enzyme involved in the conversion of acetyl-CoA to mevalonic acid in the mevalonate pathway?

3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoAR)

What is formed when DMAPP and IPP condense in a head-to-tail fashion in the mevalonate pathway?

Geranyl diphosphate (GPP)

Which pathway is known for utilizing mevalonic acid as an intermediate in terpenoid biosynthesis?

The mevalonate pathway

What is the name of the pathway involved in terpenoid biosynthesis that is also known as the MEP pathway?

1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate pathway

Name one important enzyme involved in the non-mevalonate/MEP pathway.

Methylerythritolphosphate

What is the main purpose of the shikimic acid (SA) pathway in biosynthesis?

Biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids

What are some products derived from the shikimic acid (SA) pathway?

Aromatic amino acids, vitamins, proteins, secondary metabolites

What is the purpose of the group assignment mentioned in the text?

Summarize the mevalonate and non-mevalonate pathways

Why is the shikimic acid (SA) pathway widely studied and utilized in Escherichia coli?

Different metabolic branches in different microorganisms

This quiz summarizes a lecture on the biosynthesis of natural products by Judith K. Costantine, covering topics such as basic metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and learning outcomes related to biosynthesis in pharmacognosy.

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