Chapter 3 Pharm Book

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Which nervous system is more widely distributed, innervating practically all effector systems in the body?

Sympathetic nervous system

What is the main factor for controlling the heart rate?

Vagus nerve

Which type of signaling involves the release of hormones into the bloodstream to exert effects on broadly distributed target cells in the body?

Hormone signaling

Which division's distribution is more limited, with mostly one-to-one interactions and close ganglia to organs they innervate?

Parasympathetic division

Which type of nervous system innervates skeletal muscles and is under voluntary control?

Somatic nervous system

What triggers the release of specific chemical signals, called neurotransmitters, from the nerve terminals?

Increase in intracellular Ca2+

Which system coordinates the regulation and integration of bodily functions along with the endocrine system?

Autonomic Nervous System

How does the nervous system exert its influence on target tissues?

By rapid transmission of electrical impulses over nerve fibers

What are drugs that produce their primary therapeutic effect by mimicking or altering the functions of the autonomic nervous system called?

Autonomic drugs

How do autonomic agents act in influencing the autonomic nervous system?

By stimulating portions of the autonomic nervous system

What does this chapter outline in terms of the autonomic nervous system physiology?

Fundamental physiology of the ANS

What is the role of neurotransmitters in the communication between extracellular events and chemical changes within the cell?

To mediate communication between extracellular events and chemical changes within the cell

Which system controls the motility, exocrine and endocrine secretions, and microcirculation of the GI tract independently of the CNS?

Autonomic Nervous System

What is the main function of the parasympathetic nervous system?

Increasing muscle motility and tone in the gastrointestinal system

During 'fight or flight' situations, what is the primary effect of the sympathetic nervous system on blood vessels in the skin, mucous membranes, and splanchnic area?

Constriction

What does sympathetic stimulation result in regarding the function of the bladder and sexual organs?

Contraction of detrusor; relaxation of trigone and sphincter (skeletal muscle)

What is the role of the CNS in controlling autonomic functions?

Responding to stimuli by sending out efferent reflex impulses via the autonomic nervous system

What happens when a fall in blood pressure occurs?

A compensatory rise in blood pressure and tachycardia due to decreased sympathetic output to the heart

Which division of the nervous system includes neurons located outside the brain and spinal cord?

Peripheral nervous system

What is the primary function of the autonomic nervous system?

Regulation of everyday bodily functions without conscious participation

Where are the ganglia located in the autonomic nervous system?

In the peripheral nervous system

From which spinal cord regions do the preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system originate?

Thoracic and lumbar regions

What is the function of the enteric nervous system?

Innervating the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and gallbladder

Which term is used to describe neural pathways that mediate a reflex action?

Reflex arcs

What is the primary chemical signal in the autonomic nervous system?

Acetylcholine

Which neurotransmitter mediates the transmission of nerve impulses across autonomic ganglia in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems?

Acetylcholine

What type of fibers are those termed adrenergic?

Norepinephrine fibers

Which of the following is not one of the six most commonly involved signal compounds in the nervous system?

Glycine

What do neurotransmitter receptors provide?

A binding site that recognizes and responds to neurotransmitter molecules

Which component serves as a link in the communication between extracellular events and chemical changes within the cell?

Second-messenger molecules

Which type of receptors are directly linked to membrane ion channels?

Nicotinic receptors

What is the primary role of second-messenger molecules in receptor signaling?

Initiating a series of reactions that result in specific intracellular responses

Which protein is involved in the activation of adenylyl cyclase?

Gs protein

What is the effect of Gq protein activation?

Release of diacylglycerol and inositol trisphosphate

Which neurotransmitter is specifically mentioned in relation to chemically gated ion channels?

Acetylcholine

What is the role of adenylyl cyclase in the cell?

Conversion of ATP to cAMP + PPi

Which system is associated with protein phosphorylation and increased intracellular Ca2+?

Calcium/phosphatidylinositol system

What is the ultimate effect of second-messenger molecules on the cell?

Specific intracellular response initiation

Test your knowledge of the dual innervation of the autonomic nervous system and how it affects organ activity. Understand how the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions control the functions of various organs.

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