Arteries of the Lower Limb: Femoral Artery

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19 Questions

Which artery becomes the popliteal artery as it enters the posterior compartment of the thigh?

Femoral artery

What procedure involves navigating a long, thin tube through the femoral artery for visualizing coronary vessels?

Coronary angiography

Which artery arises from the internal iliac artery and descends via the obturator canal to enter the medial thigh?

Obturator artery

Which artery supplies the pectineus, obturator externus, adductor muscles, and gracilis?

Obturator artery

Which artery supplies some of the deep gluteal muscles in the gluteal region?

Inferior gluteal artery

Which vessel descends down the posterior thigh and gives rise to genicular branches that supply the knee joint?

Popliteal artery

Which nerve is particularly susceptible to compression from an aneurysm of the popliteal artery?

Tibial nerve

Which artery begins as the anterior tibial artery enters the foot and passes over the dorsal aspect of the tarsal bones?

Dorsalis pedis artery

Which major feature is associated with tibial nerve compression from an aneurysm of the popliteal artery?

Weakened or absent plantarflexion and paraesthesia of the foot and posterolateral leg

Which artery is a continuation of the external iliac artery?

Femoral artery

Which artery wraps round the posterior side of the femur?

Medial femoral circumflex artery

Which artery can easily be damaged in a fracture of the femoral neck, leading to avascular necrosis of the femur head?

Medial femoral circumflex artery

Which artery supplies some of the muscles on the lateral aspect of the thigh?

Lateral femoral circumflex artery

Which branch of the femoral artery contributes to the supply of the muscles in the medial and posterior thigh?

Profunda femoris artery

In which region does the profunda femoris artery arise from the femoral artery?

Femoral triangle

Which tunnel does the femoral artery pass through during its descent down the anterior surface of the thigh?

Adductor canal

What is the main artery of the lower limb?

Femoral artery

From where does the femoral artery originate?

External iliac artery

What happens to the external iliac artery to become the femoral artery?

It crosses over the inguinal ligament

Study Notes

Arteries of the Lower Limb

  • The femoral artery becomes the popliteal artery as it enters the posterior compartment of the thigh.

Femoral Artery

  • The femoral artery is the main artery of the lower limb.
  • It originates from the external iliac artery.
  • It becomes the femoral artery as the external iliac artery passes under the inguinal ligament.

Popliteal Artery

  • The popliteal artery gives rise to genicular branches that supply the knee joint.
  • It descends down the posterior thigh.

Profunda Femoris Artery

  • It arises from the femoral artery in the upper thigh region.
  • It contributes to the supply of muscles in the medial and posterior thigh.

Obturator Artery

  • It arises from the internal iliac artery and descends via the obturator canal to enter the medial thigh.
  • It supplies the pectineus, obturator externus, adductor muscles, and gracilis.

Gluteal Region

  • The superior gluteal artery supplies some of the deep gluteal muscles.

Tibial Artery

  • The anterior tibial artery becomes the dorsalis pedis artery as it enters the foot and passes over the dorsal aspect of the tarsal bones.

Nerve Compression

  • The tibial nerve is susceptible to compression from an aneurysm of the popliteal artery.
  • Tibial nerve compression from an aneurysm of the popliteal artery can result in tarsal tunnel syndrome.

Femoral Triangle

  • The femoral artery passes through the femoral triangle (also known as Scarpa's triangle) during its descent down the anterior surface of the thigh.

Medical Imaging

  • Angiography involves navigating a long, thin tube through the femoral artery for visualizing coronary vessels.

Muscular Supply

  • The lateral circumflex femoral artery supplies some of the muscles on the lateral aspect of the thigh.
  • The medial circumflex femoral artery wraps round the posterior side of the femur and can be easily damaged in a fracture of the femoral neck, leading to avascular necrosis of the femur head.

Test your knowledge of the femoral artery, the main artery of the lower limb, and its continuation from the external iliac artery. Understand its course under the inguinal ligament and its relation to the profunda femoris artery in the femoral triangle.

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