Anatomy and Physiology of the Gastrointestinal System

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16 Questions

Which nervous system innervates the abdominal wall and parietal peritoneum?

Somatic nervous system

Which region is also called the suprapubic area?

Hypogastrium

What divides the abdominal surface into nine regions?

Two vertical and two horizontal planes

Which of the following is not part of the abdomen?

Uterus, ovaries, and Fallopian tubes

Which organ extends from the mouth to the anus?

Alimentary tract

Which area is also known as the left iliac region?

Left flank or lumbar region

Which structure is responsible for pain localised above the umbilicus?

Gallbladder

What type of pain is associated with obstruction of a muscular conducting tube such as the bowel or the ureter?

Colicky pain

What kind of pain lasts for a short time, eases off, and then returns?

Colicky pain

In which condition does the pain 'move' from the umbilicus to the right iliac fossa and become sharp and severe?

Appendicitis

Which organ is associated with referred pain to the right shoulder?

Liver

What does severe acute abdominal pain with sudden onset suggest?

Torsion of the bowel

Which structure is responsible for lower abdominal pain?

Transverse colon

Which condition may be indicated by abdominal pain that is midline and radiates through to the back?

Pancreatitis

Which structure causes epigastric pain?

Gallbladder

What is the character of pain associated with inflammation and neoplastic infiltration?

Constant pain

Study Notes

Abdominal Nervous System and Regional Anatomy

  • The abdominal wall and parietal peritoneum are innervated by the thoracic nerves (T7-L1).
  • The suprapubic area is also known as the hypogastric region.
  • The abdominal surface is divided into nine regions by the two midclavicular lines and the subcostal plane.

Anatomy and Organs

  • The alimentary canal extends from the mouth to the anus.
  • The left iliac region is also known as the left lower quadrant.
  • The diaphragm is responsible for pain localized above the umbilicus.

Types of Pain

  • Colicky pain is associated with obstruction of a muscular conducting tube such as the bowel or the ureter.
  • Intermittent pain lasts for a short time, eases off, and then returns.
  • Migrating pain, which moves from the umbilicus to the right iliac fossa and becomes sharp and severe, is indicative of acute appendicitis.

Organ-Specific Pain

  • The gallbladder is associated with referred pain to the right shoulder.
  • Severe acute abdominal pain with sudden onset suggests a surgical emergency, such as a perforated viscus or intestinal obstruction.
  • The ureter is responsible for lower abdominal pain.
  • Abdominal pain that is midline and radiates through to the back may indicate pancreatitis.
  • The stomach causes epigastric pain.
  • Pain associated with inflammation and neoplastic infiltration is dull, aching, and constant.

Test your knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal system, including the alimentary tract, liver, biliary system, pancreas, and other related organs. Explore the structures and functions of the abdomen in this quiz.

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