American Period Literature in the Philippines

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Which language became the language of literature during the American occupation?


During which period were Filipino writers able to master writing literary pieces in English?

Period of Discovery

Which magazine was placed under strict surveillance during the Japanese period?


What type of literature did the guerillas produce during the Japanese period?

Oral and written literature with satire and humor

Which magazines were exceptions to the prohibition of English language during the Japanese period?

Philippine Review and Pillars

In which period did universities start printing literary masterpieces in English?

Period of Imitation

Who raised the Philippine flag as a symbol of independence on June 12, 1898?

Sergio Osmena

During the American period in the Philippines, what language was used as a medium of instruction in public schools?


Who wrote the first short story in English known as 'Dead Stars'?

Paz Marquez Benitez

Which newspaper was established by Rafael Palma in 1901?

El Renacimiento

What literary work was written by Jose Garcia Villa?

'Footnote to Youth'

'Kahapon, Ngayon, at Bokas' was a play written by whom?

Aurelio Tolentino

What served as the only contact of Filipinos with the outside world during the Japanese Period?

Voice of Freedom underground radio

Which language was favored and encouraged by the Japanese Military authority during the Japanese Period?


Where did Filipino writers who were able to write freely reside during the Japanese Period?

United States

What type of poem was made up of 17 syllables and liked by the Japanese during the Japanese Period?


What type of literary form was often about life in the provinces during the Japanese Period?


What type of Filipino drama emerged during the Japanese Period?

Jose Ma.

Who wrote the famous novel 'Dekada '70'?

Lualhati Bautista

Which writer is known for being a University Professor Emeritus at the University of the Philippines?

Gemino H. Abad

Who is known for writing 'Kuwento ni Mabuti' and 'Paglalayag sa Puso Ng Isang Bata'?

Genoveva Edroza Matute

Which author wrote 'Stainless Longganisa' and 'Paboritong Libro ni Hudas'?

Bob Ong

Who is known for writing comical works like 'It's Raining Men' and 'It's a Men's World'?

Bebang Siy

'Si Amapola sa 65 na Kabanata' was authored by which writer?

Ricky Lee

Who wrote the novel 'Ginto sa Makiling'?

Macario Pineda

Which author is known for being a poet, union leader, and social activist?

Amado Hernandez

During the post-war contemporary period, which author is described as a realist with social and moral ideals?

Lazaro Francisco

Which author wrote the novel 'Sa pula, sa Puti'?

Francisco Soc Rodrigo

Which author wrote novels encouraging social change during the post-war contemporary period?

Amado Hernandez

'Bulaga' is a work by which author in the post-war contemporary period?

Clodualdo del Mundo

Study Notes

American Period Literature

  • The English language became the language of literature by August 13, 1898
  • Three periods emerged during this time:
    • Period of Reorientation: English language became dominant
    • Period of Imitation: Filipino writers imitated English and American models (1910-1930)
    • Period of Discovery: Filipino writers mastered writing in English

Writers and Their Works

  • Marcelo de Garcia Concepcion
  • Jose Garcia Villa
  • Angela Manalang Gloria
  • Abelardo Subido
  • Trinidad Tarrosa Subido
  • Rafael Zulueta De Costal
  • Paz Marquez Benitez: wrote the first short story "Dead Stars" in English
  • Paz Latorena: wrote "The Small Key"
  • Jose Garcia Villa: wrote "Footnote to Youth"

Newspapers and Publications

  • The College publications
  • UP literary Apprentice
  • Philippine Free Pass
  • The Graphic
  • The Philippine Magazine

Japanese Period (1941-1945)

  • Japanese prohibited the use of English in most newspapers except Tribune, Philippine Review, Pillars, Free Philippines, and Filipina
  • Freedom of speech was prohibited
  • Weekly magazine Liwayway was under strict surveillance
  • Tagalog writing was encouraged
  • Literary works focused on everyday life, unaffected by war
  • Guerillas used satire and humor in their oral and written literature

Notable Writers During Japanese Period

  • Amado Hernandez: wrote "Panday Pira"
  • Francisco Soc Rodrigo: wrote "Sa pula, sa Puti"
  • Clodualdo del Mundo: wrote "Bulaga"
  • Julian Cruz Balmaceda: wrote "Sino ba kayo? Dahil sa Anak, and Higante ng Patay"

21st Century Literature

  • Historical background: post-war and contemporary period, also known as the "Recovering Era"
  • Filipinos gained independence from the US and Japan
  • Transition from American-style to modern writing
  • Struggle of mind and spirit characterized this period
  • More confidence in self-expression
  • Newspapers like Free Press, Morning Sun, Daily Mirror, and Evening News proved there were more readers in English
  • Ginto sa Makiling, a novel by Macario Pineda, was published in 1947
  • Amado Hernandez wrote novels encouraging social change
  • Lazaro Francisco: a realist with social and moral deals

Contemporary Writers

  • Lualhati Bautista: novelist, wrote Dekada ‘70, GAPO, and Bata, bata, paano ka ginawa?
  • Gemino H. Abad: University Professor Emeritus, wrote "Upon Our Own ground"
  • Linda Ty Casper: wrote and published over 15 books, including DreamEden and The Stranded Whale
  • Efren Abueg: wrote Mabangos na Lungsod, and Sa Bagong Paraiso
  • Bebang Siy: wrote It's Raining men's, and It's a mens world, known for humorous works
  • Bob Ong: wrote Stainless Longganisa, ABNKKBSNPLAko, and Paboritong Libro ni Hudas
  • Ricky Lee: scriptwriter, author of si Amapola sa 65 na Kabanata, and Para Kay B.F
  • Ferdinand Pisigan Jarin: author of Anim na Sabado Ng Beyblade at iba pang Sanaysay, a memoir about his son

Test your knowledge on American period literature in the Philippines, covering events like the raising of the Philippine flag and advancements in education and culture. Explore the period of apprenticeship where Filipino writers imitated English and American literary models.

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