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the process by which the actions of an individual or group affect the behavior of others

Change in behavior or attitudes brought about by a desire to follow the beliefs or standards of other.

conforming to an expectation or a request without really believing what you are doing

occurs when you genuinely believe in what the group has persuaded you to do

A study conducted where independently participants' perception of the movement of the light, significantly differ, but when they came together, their answers converged to the norm

produces conformity when a person believes others are correct in their judgments

produces conformity when a person fears the negative social consequences of appearing deviant

actions or behaviors that go against social norms or expectations

Changes in behavior that are elicited by direct requests

a social reaction of approval or disapproval in response to someone's actions

we treat others as they treated us Positive effect: we repay the kindness of others Negative: sanction retaliation ("an eye for an eye"

you ask a person to agree to a small request and later ask that person to comply with a more important one/ bigger request

What phenomena when asking for permission from your mother to hang out at your friends’ house (small request) and later on you asked for money (bigger request)

we infer our attitudes by observing our own behavior 1st, in the initial request, you see yourself as cooperative 2nd, when confronted with a difficult request, you will respond in ways that will maintain the self-image you made in the initial request

someone makes a large request, expecting it to be refused, and follows it with a smaller one.

the second request seems smaller in relation to the initial request

A two-step compliance technique in which the influencer secures agreement with a request but then increases the size of that request by revealing hidden costs

LOWBALLING TECHNIQUE WORK when once a people commit, they will justify that decision

LOWBALLING TECHNIQUE WORK there is a sense of obligation to the person you negotiated with

A two-step compliance technique in which the influencer begins with an inflated request, then decreases its apparent size by offering a discount or bonus.

a change in behavior in response to the OB commands of others.

l concept relating to the tendency for the presence of others to improve a person's performance

means that the people are not competing, do not reward or punish, and in fact do nothing except be present or co-actors

Norman Triplett (1898), a psychologist

interested in bicycle racing, noticed that

cyclists’ times were faster when racing together

than when racing alone against the clock. This is an example of?

Robert Zajonc reconcciled apparently conflicting findings aby proposing that arousal from others' presence strengthens dominant responses (the correct responses only on easy or well-learned tasks)

Peter Hunt and Joseph Hillery (1973) found that in the presence of

others, students took less

time to learn a simple maze and more time to learn a complex one (just

as the cockroaches do!).

Why are we

aroused by


presence of

others? Nickolas Cottrell’s conclusion: The enhancement of dominant responses is strongest when people think they are being evaluated.

Sanders et al., (1986) theorized that when people wonder how co-actors are doing or how an audience is reacting, they get distracted

innate social arousal mechanism mere presence of others produces some arousal even without evaluation apprehension or arousing distraction

which describes the tendency for individuals to lower their productivity when in a group

participants working in groups exert less effort than participants working individually occurs when people are not accountable for their individual efforts

when people belief that their individual efforts were measured discouraged social loafing

“a complex process in which a series of

social conditions lead to changes in perception of self and of other


” so that

“behavior that is normally restrained and inhibited is ‘released’ in

violation of established norms of appropriateness”


Test your knowledge of conformity and social influence with this quiz. Explore the concepts of changing behavior or beliefs to fit in with a group, and the psychological processes behind conforming to social norms.

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