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The Lymphatic and Immune System: Chapter 21 Anatomy

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33 Questions

What happens when a B cell attaches to an antigen?

The B cell differentiates into a plasma cell

What is the primary function of T cells?

Both a and b

Where do B cells develop?

Bone marrow

What is the primary function of Natural Killer cells?

To contain cell-killing granules and provide an innate immune response

What happens to the thymus gland over time?

It begins shrinking at birth and may be completely gone by age 120

What is the main function of the lymphatic system?

Transporting excess fluid to the bloodstream

What is the major staging area for the development of a critical immune response?

Lymph node

How does lymph move through the body?

Through muscle contraction

Which cells coordinate the adaptive immune response?

B cells

Where do all leukocytes originate from?

Bone marrow

Which immune response is rapid but non-specific?

Innate immune response

What is the function of lymph nodes in the lymphatic system?

Removing debris and pathogens

Which organ is described as having extensive vascularization and is known as the 'filter of the Blood'?

Spleen

What type of cells are mainly found in lymphoid nodules?

Lymphocytes

What causes the swelling of tonsils?

Active immune response to infection

Which vessels enter the lymph nodes?

Afferent lymphatic vessels

Where is Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) mainly found?

Lungs

What is the primary function of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT)?

To effectively defend against inhaled pathogens

Which of the following is NOT a barrier defense mechanism?

Adaptive immune response

What is the primary role of macrophages in the innate immune response?

To phagocytose and destroy pathogens

Which of the following is a key function of the complement system?

To opsonize pathogens for phagocytosis

What is the primary purpose of the inflammatory response?

To attract phagocytes to the site of infection

What is the key difference between the primary and secondary adaptive immune responses?

The primary response is slower, the secondary is faster

What is the key difference between class I and class II MHC molecules?

Class I is expressed by all cells, class II is only expressed by professional APCs

What is the primary function of natural killer (NK) cells in the innate immune response?

To induce apoptosis in infected cells

What is the primary function of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in the innate immune response?

To recognize pathogens or molecules released by stressed/damaged cells

What is the primary function of interferons in the innate immune response?

To tell nearby cells to make antiviral proteins

Which cells present antigens to T cells in the lymph nodes?

Dendritic cells

What is the process that eliminates self-reactive T cells during T cell development?

Negative selection

What is the primary function of helper T cells?

Secreting cytokines to enhance other immune responses

Which type of helper T cell regulates the activity of B cells?

Th2 cells

What is the process by which a single T cell recognizes an antigen and rapidly divides into many effector and memory T cells?

Clonal expansion

Which type of T cell directly kills infected or cancerous cells?

Cytotoxic T cells

Explore the anatomy of the lymphatic and immune systems, including the role of immune system cells and organs in destroying pathogens, the function of lymphatic vessels in filtering pathogens from the blood, the absorption of dietary lipids and fat-soluble vitamins in lymphatic vessels, and the significance of lymph nodes in critical immune responses.

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