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Steroid Hormones Structure and Function

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18 Questions

What is the substrate for the synthesis of all steroid hormones?

Cholesterol

What is the function of glucocorticoids in the body?

Favor breakdown of fat and protein, anti-inflammatory, and promote gluconeogenesis

Where are the enzymes that produce steroid hormones from cholesterol located?

Smooth ER and mitochondria

What is the name of the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in steroid synthesis?

Cytochrome P450scc enzyme

What is the name of the steroid hormone that prepares the uterus lining for implantation of ovum?

Progesterone

Why are steroid hormones complexed to specific binding globulins in the blood?

Because they are not lipid soluble and need to be carried in the blood

What is the name of the enzyme involved in the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone?

P450scc

Where is cholesterol mostly located in the mitochondria?

External mitochondrial membrane

What is the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of steroids?

Transport of cholesterol into the mitochondria

What is the precursor molecule for all C18, C19, and C21 steroids?

Pregnenolone

In which region of the adrenal cortex are androgens secreted?

Zona reticularis

What is the main product of androgen synthesis in the adrenal cortex?

Androstenedione

Which of the following hormones is responsible for secondary male sex characteristics and spermatogenesis?

Testosterone

What is the function of coactivator proteins in the mechanism of steroid hormone action?

To cause promoter activation and increased transcription of targeted genes

What is the main purpose of conjugation of steroid metabolites with glucouronic acid or sulfate?

To make them more soluble and excretable

What percentage of conjugated steroid metabolites is excreted in the feces?

20-30%

What is the primary function of Estradiol in the body?

To develop and maintain female reproductive tissues and regulate menstrual cycle

Where do steroid hormones bind to specific receptors in the target cell?

In the cytosol

Learn about the structure and function of steroid hormones, including their derivation from cholesterol, nomenclature, and solubility characteristics. Understand how they are carried in the blood and their mechanism of action.

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