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Anatomy LE 4: Accessory Glands of the Gastrointestinal Tract

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44 Questions

What percentage of blood to the liver is supplied by the Hepatic artery?

30%

What is the primary cause of an increase in pressure within the portal vein?

Blockage of blood vessels in the intrahepatic portal vein tree

What is the name of the disease marked by the degeneration of the cells, inflammation and fibrous thickening of tissue in the liver?

Cirrhosis

What happens to the blood in portal hypertension?

It finds alternative pathways/routes through anastomoses

What is the name of the vein that blood vessels branch into in the liver?

Central vein

What is the name of the tree-like structure that blood vessels branch into in the liver?

Intrahepatic portal vein tree

What is the result of an increase in pressure within the portal vein?

Portal Hypertension

What is the name of the system that the venous blood from the gastrointestinal tract reaches without going through the liver?

Systemic or caval system

What is the term for the connections between the portal and systemic circulations that provide alternative routes of circulation?

Anastomoses

What surrounds the Islets of Langerhans?

Serous acini

What type of epithelium lines the larger intralobular ducts?

Simple columnar epithelium

What is the location of the most numerous pancreatic ducts?

Tail of the pancreas

What is the function of centroacinar cells?

To secrete pancreatic enzymes

What contains the digestive enzyme in inactive form?

Zymogen granules

What is unique about pancreatic acini?

The initial duct leading from acini begins within the acinus

What is the diagnosis of the 3-year-old boy with fever and swelling on the right side of face?

Mumps

What is the name of the cells that make up the pancreatic acinus?

Pyramidal secretory serous cells

What joins the main pancreatic duct that would run the length of the gland?

Intralobular and intercalated ducts

What percentage of the blood to the liver is brought by the portal vein?

75-80%

What is the primary source of nutrients carried by the portal vein to the liver?

The entire GIT

Where does the portal vein form?

Behind the neck of the pancreas at the level of L1

What is the result of removing a section of the liver during hepatic lobectomy?

No excessive bleeding, with independent blood supply

What is the purpose of hepatic lobectomy?

To remove a malignant mass or tumor

What is the direction of the portal vein's route after forming behind the pancreas?

Behind the first portion of the duodenum, to the right border of the lesser omentum

What is the characteristic of the blood carried by the portal vein?

Oxygen-poor, nutrient-rich

What is the primary function of the portal vein in relation to the liver?

To carry all nutrients absorbed by the alimentary tract to the liver

What is the location of the porta hepatis in relation to the portal vein?

Where the portal vein splits into the right and left branches

What is the temperature of the patient mentioned in the case?

38°C

What is the result of a high level of bilirubin in the blood?

Jaundice

What is the function of the islets of Langerhans?

Regulating glucose and lipid metabolism

What percentage of the total saliva volume is produced by minor salivary glands?

15%

Where is Stensen's duct located?

Opposite to the upper 1st molar tooth

What is the name of the gland that produces α-Amylase?

All of the above

What is the percentage of pancreatic volume occupied by the endocrine portion?

1-2%

What is the daily consumption of beer by the 52-year-old man mentioned in the case?

4-5 bottles

What is the reason for the yellowing of the skin in the 52-year-old man mentioned in the case?

High level of bilirubin in the blood

What is NOT a function of the liver?

Production and secretion of pepsinogen

What is NOT a content of the cystohepatic triangle?

Left hepatic artery

Which space is the most gravity-dependent in the abdominal cavity?

Subhepatic recess

What structure separates the subphrenic recess into left and right?

Coronary ligament

What structure controls the filling and emptying of the gallbladder?

Pars spiralis

What is true about the pancreas?

It can be seen when the liver is lifted

What is the location of the tail of the pancreas?

Concavity of the duodenum

What is true about Zone 3 of the hepatic lobule?

It receives the least oxygen and nutrients

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