Week 3: Counseling and Helping Relationships

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32 Questions

Which counseling approach focuses on balancing acceptance and change?

Dialectical Behavior Therapy

What does the ABC model in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy examine the relationship between?

Activating events, Beliefs, and Consequences

Which key concept emphasizes personal responsibility and choice in behavior in Reality Therapy?

Choice theory

What does Transactional Analysis analyze transactions between?

Child, Parent, and Adult ego states

Who developed Existential Therapy?

Frankl and Yalom

Which therapy focuses on future-oriented solutions rather than problems?

Solution-Focused Brief Therapy

In Multimodal Therapy, what does BASIC ID cover?

Behavior, Affect, Sensation, Imagery, Cognition

Which counseling skill involves restating the client's words in a condensed form to clarify understanding?


Which therapeutic approach emphasizes the role of the unconscious in shaping behavior and personality?

Psychoanalytic Theory

In which therapeutic approach are the concepts of id, ego, and superego central to understanding thoughts and behaviors?

Psychoanalytic Theory

Which therapeutic approach focuses on providing nonjudgmental acceptance to foster self-exploration?

Person-Centered Theory

Which therapeutic approach emphasizes the importance of community and social connections?

Individual Psychology

Which therapeutic approach views individuals as whole entities, considering mind, body, and emotions?

Gestalt Therapy

Which therapeutic approach involves developmental stages that impact personality formation?

Psychoanalytic Theory

What does the term 'Kinesics' refer to?

The study of non-verbal communication through body movements

In the Johari Window model, what does the 'Blind Spot' quadrant represent?

Information known to others but not to self

What is the main focus of 'Paradoxical Intention'?

Encouraging a patient to engage in their most feared behavior

What does the term 'Proxemics' refer to?

The study of how people perceive and use personal space

What is the purpose of 'Genograms' in counseling?

To look through past family history and various psychological factors

What does the term 'Catharsis' refer to in counseling?

Purging emotions after talking through painful feelings

What is the concept of 'Client Autonomy' in counseling?

Recognizing and respecting clients' ability to make choices and decisions about their lives

What is the primary aim of using the Johari Window model in counseling?

To enhance self-awareness and mutual understanding through feedback and communication

'Hope and Optimism' in counseling emphasizes which aspect of the client?

Their potential for positive change

In counseling, what does the concept of 'the locus of pathology' refer to?

Identifying the system as dysfunctional instead of blaming the individual

Which therapeutic approach emphasizes the importance of community and social connections?

Reality Therapy

According to Bandura's behavior theory, how do people primarily grow and develop?

By responding to environmental stimuli and modeling

In Adler's individual psychology, how is people's behavior influenced?

By birth order

According to Freud's psychoanalysis, what motivates people?

Unconscious forces and biological instincts

What is the main emphasis of Glasser's reality therapy?

Meeting needs and having purpose

In Perls' Gestalt therapy, how are people viewed?

As part of their surrounding environment

What is the core concept of Ellis' Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)?

The inherent tendency to think badly

According to Jung's analytic psychology, what do people move towards?

Individual self-fulfillment and actualization

Study Notes

Counseling Theories

  • Psychoanalytic Theory (Sigmund Freud)

  • Unconscious mind plays a significant role in shaping behavior and personality

  • Three components of the psyche: Id, Ego, Superego

  • Psychosexual stages influence personality formation

  • Defense mechanisms protect the ego from anxiety

  • Person-Centered Theory (Carl Rogers)

  • Unconditional positive regard: nonjudgmental acceptance for self-exploration

  • Empathy and genuineness are core conditions for a therapeutic relationship

  • Self-actualization: facilitating clients' natural drive toward personal growth

  • Gestalt Therapy (Frederick Perls)

  • Focus on the "here and now": emphasizing present experiences and awareness

  • Holism: considering individuals as whole entities, including mind, body, and emotions

  • Techniques like empty chair and role-playing for self-discovery

  • Individual Psychology (Alfred Adler)

  • Striving for superiority: overcoming perceived inferiorities

  • Social interest: emphasizing community and social connections

  • Birth order influences personality development

  • Transactional Analysis (Eric Berne)

  • Ego states: analyzing transactions between Parent, Adult, and Child

  • Life scripts: unconscious life plans developed in childhood

  • Strokes: units of recognition or acknowledgment exchanged in social transactions

  • Existential Therapy (Frankl and Yalom)

  • Existential concerns: focusing on freedom, isolation, meaning, and death

  • Authenticity: encouraging individuals to take responsibility for their choices

  • Emphasis on the client's experience of existence

  • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)

  • Developed by Marsha Linehan for emotion regulation and interpersonal effectiveness

  • Combining cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness strategies

  • Focus on dialectics, balancing acceptance and change

  • Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (Albert Ellis)

  • ABC model: examining the relationship between Activating events, Beliefs, and Consequences

  • Disputing irrational beliefs: challenging and changing irrational thoughts

  • Focus on changing cognitive processes to influence emotions and behaviors

  • Reality Therapy (William Glasser)

  • Choice theory: emphasizing personal responsibility and choice in behavior

  • Focus on the present: addressing current behaviors and choices

  • WDEP (Wants, Doing, Evaluation, Planning) process for problem-solving

  • Solution-Focused Brief Therapy

  • Future-oriented: focusing on solutions rather than problems

  • Goal-setting and scaling questions: tools for exploring client goals

  • Brief and goal-directed sessions

  • Narrative Therapy

  • Externalization of the problem: separating individuals from their problems

  • Storytelling: examining and reshaping the narratives individuals use to make meaning

  • Deconstructing dominant narratives to empower clients

  • Multimodal Therapy

  • Developed by Arnold Lazarus, integrating various therapeutic modalities

  • BASIC ID: conceptual framework covering Behavior, Affect, Sensation, Imagery, Cognition, Interpersonal relationships, and Drugs/biology

  • Tailoring interventions to individual needs across multiple dimensions

Counseling Skills

  • Active Listening

  • Attending fully to the client, showing genuine interest, and providing feedback

  • Demonstrating understanding

  • Empathy

  • Understanding and sharing the client's feelings

  • Conveying a deep sense of compassion and connection

  • Reflective Skills

  • Reflecting on the client's emotions and thoughts to deepen self-awareness

  • Facilitating exploration

  • Questioning

  • Using open-ended and probing questions to encourage clients to express themselves

  • Exploring concerns

  • Paraphrasing

  • Restating the client's words in a condensed form to clarify and confirm understanding

  • Providing a concise overview

  • Summarizing

  • Reviewing and organizing key points in a session to enhance clarity

  • Providing a concise overview

  • Confrontation

  • Gently challenging clients' perceptions or behaviors to promote insight and self-awareness

  • Problem-Solving

  • Collaborating with clients to identify and explore solutions to challenges or issues

  • Cultural Competence

  • Demonstrating an understanding of and respect for diverse cultural backgrounds

  • Adapting counseling approaches accordingly

  • Facilitation of Expression

  • Encouraging clients to express themselves freely

  • Fostering a non-judgmental and safe space

  • Goal Setting

  • Collaborating with clients to set realistic and achievable goals

  • Fostering personal growth and change

  • Feedback and Reinforcement

  • Providing constructive feedback and positive reinforcement

  • Acknowledging clients' progress and efforts

Test your knowledge of psychoanalytic and person-centered theories with this quiz. Explore key points from Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory, including the unconscious mind, Id, Ego, Superego, psychosexual stages, and defense mechanisms. Delve into Carl Rogers' person-centered theory, covering concepts like unconditional positive regard and self-concept.

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