quiz image

Comprehensive pt 2

BrightestBoston2440 avatar
BrightestBoston2440
·
·
Download

Start Quiz

Study Flashcards

198 Questions

What is the primary function of the dorsal stream in visual processing?

Perception of spatial location and movement

What is a common challenge people face when attempting to identify a part as belonging to a whole?

Failure to include the part in their original verbal description of the whole.

What is the role of the inferior temporal cortex in visual processing?

Perception of form and object recognition

What is the majority of research suggesting regarding the viewpoint on mental images?

Analog viewpoint is more prevalent in mental image formation.

What is the highest, most abstract level of information processing according to Marr's tri-level hypothesis?

Computational level

What is the primary focus of Marr's tri-level hypothesis?

Understanding how cognitive processes are implemented in the brain

What is a characteristic that differentiates people in terms of their cognitive styles?

Some people are more visualizers, while others are more verbalizers.

What is the role of ambiguous figures in mental image formation?

They make it difficult to reinterpret mental images.

What is the role of the striate cortex in visual processing?

Primary visual cortex function

What is the primary difference between the ventral stream and dorsal stream in visual processing?

The ventral stream processes form and color, while the dorsal stream processes movement and spatial location.

What is the primary function of the opponent-process cells in visual processing?

To enhance color contrast between different colors.

In the context of color processing, what is the sequence of events that leads to the perception of color?

Cones respond to light, then opponent-process cells process the responses

Which part of the visual processing hierarchy is responsible for the initial processing of light information?

Retina

What is the role of the inferior temporal cortex in visual processing?

To recognize and identify objects

How does the tri-level hypothesis apply to the scenario of choosing a brand of condoms based on packaging?

It suggests that the color of the packaging will affect the perceived durability of the product

What is the primary purpose of the striate cortex in visual processing?

To analyze the spatial relationships between objects

What is a characteristic of classical, jazz, blues, and folk music lovers?

They tend to be more verbally intelligent and open to experience.

What is the primary benefit of music therapy for Alzheimer's patients?

Improvement in memory.

What role does music play in emotional self-expression in children?

It provides a medium for children to explore and express emotions.

What is unique about the effect of music on the brain?

It activates all areas of the brain simultaneously.

What is the additional benefit of pairing music therapy with playing an instrument or singing along?

It enhances the effectiveness of music therapy.

Which type of music was found to be particularly effective for purchasing decisions with high affective involvement?

Slow, minor-key music to evoke contemplative states.

What is the likely effect of listening to dissonant chords on decision making?

Increased reliance on aggregate information

What are the primary applications of music therapy in the context of disabilities?

All of the above.

How does music influence emotional expression?

By releasing dopamine and endorphins

What is the primary brain function affected by music?

Emotional regulation

What is the plausible effect of listening to music on people with Parkinson's disease?

It can help them regain their motor control

What is the potential role of music in terms of personality and individual differences?

Music can be used to understand an individual's personality and preferences

What is the possible impact of music on cognitive function?

Music can have a positive impact on cognitive function in individuals with disabilities

What is the possible use of music in therapy?

Music can be used in therapy to improve motor control and cognitive function

What is the primary assumption of IQ tests that undermines motivation and learning?

Intelligence is fixed and innate

What is the primary benefit of developing a growth mindset in students, particularly those from low socioeconomic backgrounds?

Improved academic performance

According to the research by Dweck and Blackwell (2007), what was the primary outcome for students who received a special module on how intelligence can be improved?

They showed a significant improvement in study skills and grades

What is the primary reason why low-income students are less likely to hold a growth mindset compared to their wealthier peers?

Cultural reasons that lead to anxiety about their skills

What is the primary outcome for low-income students who exhibit a growth mindset compared to their wealthier peers?

They show academic performance as high as that of fixed mindset students from higher income brackets

What is the primary factor that contributed to the improvement in study skills and grades for students who received a special module on how intelligence can be improved?

A shift from fixed to growth mindset

According to the behaviorist theory, what is the primary factor that influences the likelihood of a response occurring again?

The consequences of the response

What is the term for the phenomenon where rewards can undermine intrinsic motivation?

Overjustification effect

What did Edward Tolman's experiments on maze learning in rats demonstrate?

The importance of cognitive mapping in learning

What is the primary difference between extrinsic and intrinsic rewards?

Extrinsic rewards are based on external factors, while intrinsic rewards are based on personal satisfaction

What is the term for the mental representation of the environment that is used for navigation and decision-making?

Cognitive map

What is the primary reason why expert tutors avoid telling a child that they are wrong?

To encourage the child to think for themselves

What is the primary goal of using cognitive mapping in teaching and learning?

To improve navigation and decision-making

According to behaviorist theory, what is the primary role of reinforcement in learning?

To increase the likelihood of a behavior being repeated.

What is a primary function of the basal ganglia in relation to implicit memory?

Habit formation

What type of memory is responsible for the formation of habits and skills?

Implicit memory

Which type of amnesia is characterized by the inability to form new implicit memories?

Procedural amnesia

What brain region is involved in spatial navigation and the formation of cognitive maps?

Hippocampus

What is the term for the process by which previously consolidated memories can be updated or modified?

Reconsolidation

What is the primary function of sensory memory?

To process and select information from the environment

What is the name of the type of sensory memory that deals with visual information?

Iconic memory

What is the characteristic of Eidetic imagery?

A relatively long-lasting and detailed visual memory

What is the duration of information held in sensory memory?

1/2 to 4 seconds

What is the term for the type of memory that is often considered to be a part of perception?

Sensory memory

What is the primary reason for retrieval failure in the case of painful or anxiety-provoking information?

Repression of painful or anxiety-provoking information

What is the term for the process by which memories are reconstructed and rewritten during retrieval?

Reconsolidation

What is the term for the phenomenon where people recall a supposed event that is really the blending of details over repeated and related episodes?

Repisodic memory

What is the term for the phenomenon where people attribute to the wrong source an event that they have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined?

Source amnesia

What is the characteristic of savant syndrome that suggests that memory capacities are potentially virtually limitless?

Superior ability in one intellectual domain

What is the primary factor that contributes to the degree of interference between memories?

The similarity between memories

What is the term for the failure to access information that is stored in long-term memory?

Retrieval failure

What is the primary reason for the improvement in recall when participants slept during the retention interval in the Jenkins and Dallenbach (1924) study?

Increased consolidation of memories during sleep

What is the term for generalized information about a situation or event that influences recall?

Schema

What is the potential application of manipulating reconsolidation in the treatment of people with traumatic memories?

Disrupting the reconsolidation of the traumatic memory

What is the potential legal implication of using neurosurgeries to remove tumors like the one found in Charles Whitman's brain?

Defendants may be able to use neurological evidence to justify their actions.

What is the ethical consideration in using neuroscience-based interventions to enhance cognitive function in individuals with a history of criminal behavior?

Ensuring that the interventions do not compromise the individual's autonomy.

What is the potential benefit of using neuroscientific evidence in legal defense?

Providing an alternative explanation for criminal behavior.

What is the potential predictor of criminal behavior according to neuroscientific evidence?

Decreased prefrontal activity and increased subcortical activity

What is the potential application of neuroscience-based interventions in the criminal justice system?

All of the above

What is the effect of the low-activity form of the MAOA gene on aggressive behavior?

It increases aggressive behavior only in individuals with a history of abuse

What is the potential ethical concern surrounding the use of neuroscience-based interventions in the criminal justice system?

The use of neuroscience-based interventions may lead to a decrease in personal responsibility

What is the potential benefit of deep brain stimulation as a neuroscience-based intervention for criminal behavior?

It may decrease the risk of recidivism

What is the potential application of nootropics in the context of criminal behavior?

They may be used to decrease aggressive behavior in individuals

In the context of neurolaw, what is the primary challenge of using eyewitness testimony in legal proceedings?

The high likelihood of false memories

What is the potential application of nootropics in the context of neurolaw?

To boost the performance of law enforcement officials

What is the goal of neuroscience-based interventions in the context of criminal sentencing?

To reduce the likelihood of recidivism

In the context of neurolaw, what is the primary challenge of using neuroscientific evidence in legal proceedings?

The potential for the misuse of neuroscientific evidence

What is the potential application of neurolaw in the context of crime prevention?

The development of early warning systems for criminal behavior

What is the primary challenge in explaining the evolution of cooperative behavior?

Cooperators are more likely to be exploited.

What is the role of the cheater detection module in cooperative behavior?

To detect and punish defectors

What is the primary assumption of social exchange theory?

That individuals seek to maximize their benefits

What is the relationship between deontic logic and moral reasoning?

Deontic logic is a framework for moral reasoning

What is the primary difference between conditional reasoning and deontic logic?

Deontic logic involves moral judgments

What determines the activation level of a chunk in declarative memory?

How useful the chunk has been in the past and how relevant it is to the current situation

What is the purpose of the subsymbolic equations in the pattern-matching module?

To model the accessibility of information in declarative memory

What is the characteristic of the general information processing in the buffers?

Symbolic

What determines which production rule gains access to the buffer?

The utility of the production rule

What is the role of the artificial neural network in the pattern-matching module?

To make subsymbolic calculations for production rule selection

What is the relationship between the activation level of a chunk and its accessibility?

The higher the activation level, the more accessible the chunk

What is the primary function of the cheater detection module in humans?

To monitor social exchanges and detect violations of social norms

Which of the following is an example of a deontic conditional?

If you are drinking beer, then you must be over 21 years of age

What is the proposed evolutionary basis of the cheater detection module?

The importance of cooperation and reciprocity in social groups

Why do people tend to perform better on conditional reasoning tasks when they involve deontic conditionals?

Because deontic conditionals are more closely related to social norms and rules

What is the term for the phenomenon where people are better at reasoning with deontic conditionals than with non-deontic conditionals?

The deontic conditional advantage

What is the primary theoretical framework that explains how people reason about deontic conditionals?

Social exchange theory

What is the primary accomplishment of the sensorimotor stage according to Piaget?

Development of object permanence

What is the age range of children in the pre-operational stage according to Piaget's theory?

2-7 years

What is the primary limitation of Piaget's stage model?

It depicts children's thinking as being more consistent than it actually is

What is the primary characteristic of the concrete operations stage according to Piaget's theory?

Understanding of reversible consequences of actions

What is the primary difference between the pre-operational and concrete operations stages according to Piaget's theory?

Understanding of reversible consequences of actions

What is the primary characteristic of the formal operations stage according to Piaget's theory?

Ability to engage in hypothetical and deductive reasoning

What is the primary task that demonstrates a child's understanding of object permanence?

Reaching under cloth for a hidden toy

What is the primary limitation of the sensorimotor stage according to Piaget's theory?

Children do not understand object permanence

What is the primary characteristic of children's thinking in the pre-operational stage according to Piaget's theory?

Egocentric thinking

What is the primary observation that led Piaget to propose his theory of cognitive development?

Children of different ages made different kinds of mistakes when solving problems

According to Piaget, at what age do infants typically develop an understanding of object permanence?

8 months

What is the key difference between infant folk physics and adult folk physics?

Infants prioritize spatiotemporal continuity, while adults prioritize featural continuity

What is the primary advantage of using recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to model object permanence?

RNNs can handle time series data and sequence information

What is the typical age range at which children develop an understanding of false belief, as demonstrated by the false belief task?

3-4 years

What is the primary difference between the BELIEVES operation and the PRETENDS operation in the context of mindreading?

BELIEVES is harder to acquire, while PRETENDS is easier

What is the term for the ability to understand other people's mental states, including beliefs, desires, and intentions?

Mindreading

What is the primary function of the shared attention mechanism (SAM) in the development of theory of mind?

It facilitates joint attention and coordinated social behavior

What is the term for the type of cognitive development that enables children to understand that another person can have a different belief about the world?

Metarepresentation

What is the primary advantage of using the false belief task to assess theory of mind development in children?

It provides a clear and objective measure of theory of mind

What is the primary function of the left hemisphere in language processing?

It performs most language processing, including grammar and vocabulary.

What is the dual-route approach to reading primarily concerned with?

The direct versus indirect access to word recognition.

What is the concept that suggests that language influences thought and perception?

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

Which researchers studied the relationship between the brain and language?

Petersen, Fox, and Posner

What is the primary function of the right hemisphere in language processing?

It interprets a message's emotional tone and decodes metaphors.

What is a challenge in speech perception that makes computer voice recognition systems problematic?

All of the above

What is a finding about bilingual individuals?

They reveal different personalities when taking the same personality test in their two languages

What is the focus of neurolinguistics?

The study of the relationship between the brain and language.

What is a difference in moral judgments between bilingual individuals responding in their first language versus their second language?

They are less emotional in their second language

What is a phenomenon observed in language switching, where bilingual individuals switch languages depending on the emotion they want to express?

Emotion-driven language switching

What is the name of the hypothesis that suggests that language determines thought and perception?

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis

What is the primary factor that affects language acquisition, according to the text?

Anxiety

What does the language partner describe in the language learning process?

Pictures

What happens when anxiety is high during language acquisition?

The language acquisition device is blocked

What is the goal of the language partner during the language learning process?

To get input into the language acquisition device

What is the main reason why people tend to perform better on conditional reasoning tasks when they involve deontic conditionals?

Deontic conditionals are more abstract and promote logical reasoning.

What is the primary advantage of promoting parallel processing over serial processing in problem solving?

Enhancing creative solutions.

What is the primary strategy for improving problem solving by promoting efficient representation of information?

Representing problems using symbols and diagrams.

What is the primary obstacle to problem solving that arises when people rely on confirmation bias?

Selective attention to information.

What is the primary strategy for improving problem solving by fostering insight?

Promoting incubation and taking breaks.

Which problem-solving approach involves finding a useful analogy between the present problem and a more familiar one?

Tower of Hanoi Analogy approach

What is the primary obstacle to problem solving that arises from the tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions?

Confirmation bias

Expert anagram solvers often use which type of processing to solve problems?

Parallel processing

What is the benefit of promoting parallel processing in problem-solving?

Fostering insight and finding creative solutions

What is the primary strategy that reduces the number of operations to solve a problem?

Heuristics

What is the primary challenge of solving an anagram using an exhaustive search approach?

It is a time-consuming process

Which problem-solving strategy is demonstrated by the Buddhist Monk problem?

Representing the problem effectively

What is the primary benefit of using heuristics in problem-solving?

They are faster than algorithms

What is the primary goal of understanding the problem in problem-solving?

To represent the problem effectively

What is the primary characteristic of heuristics in problem-solving?

They are faster but more error-prone

What is the fundamental concept in chaos theory that makes weather prediction difficult?

Sensitivity to initial conditions

What is the term for the process by which female crickets locate mates based on their song?

Phonotaxis

What is the characteristic of nonlinear systems that makes them difficult to model?

Sensitivity to initial conditions

What is the advantage of studying insects to understand natural intelligence?

They provide insight into ecologically valid problems

What is the approach to robotics proposed by situated cognition theorists?

A bottom-up, dynamical systems-like approach

What is the term for the phenomenon where small changes in initial conditions can lead to drastically different outcomes?

Sensitivity to initial conditions

What is a unique feature of xenobots?

They can move around in circles and push pellets into a central location.

What is one potential application of xenobots?

Scraping out plaque from arteries.

What is the uncanny valley effect?

A phenomenon where humans are uneasy with robots that imperfectly resemble humans.

What is a potential use of xenobots in the context of environmental issues?

Gathering microplastics in the oceans.

What is a characteristic of xenobots that allows them to survive and adapt?

Their ability to use embryonic energy stores.

What is the primary characteristic of a situated creature, according to Brooks?

It is embedded in the world and interacts with it through its sensors.

What is the primary difference between a behavior-based robot and a symbolic robot?

A behavior-based robot does not use a central planning system, while a symbolic robot does.

What is an example of a behavior-based robot that uses a topological map?

TOTO robot

What is the primary difference between an embodied creature and a situated creature, according to Brooks?

An embodied creature has a physical body, while a situated creature does not.

What is the primary characteristic of the way bees operate to identify shortcuts between feeding sites?

They use a topological map to represent their environment.

What is the primary characteristic of the Human Brain Project?

It is a project that aims to understand the human brain.

What is the potential hazard of a flawed AI algorithm in healthcare?

Harming multiple patients

According to the MIT study, what is the benefit of using AI in mammogram readings?

Reducing the number of benign surgeries

What is the benefit of using AI in diagnosing childhood illnesses?

Outperforming junior physicians

What is the role of AI in robotics in the healthcare sector?

Assisting frail and elderly patients

What is the application of AI in ophthalmology?

Diagnosing diabetic retinopathy

What is the primary benefit of AI-assisted therapy in mental health diagnosis?

Increased accuracy in diagnosis

What is the primary challenge of using AI in emotion recognition for mental health diagnosis?

Difficulty in replicating human emotional intelligence

What is the primary benefit of using autonomous vehicles in mental health treatment?

Increased access to remote healthcare services

What is the primary limitation of using AI in mental health diagnosis?

Lack of transparency in AI decision-making processes

What is the primary advantage of AI-assisted therapy in mental health treatment?

Enhanced personalization of treatment plans

What is the primary challenge of integrating AI in mental health diagnosis with human clinicians?

Difficulty in interpreting AI-generated results

What is the primary application of AI in mental health diagnosis?

Identifying early warning signs of mental health conditions

What is the primary benefit of using AI-powered chatbots in mental health treatment?

Increased access to mental health services

What is the primary goal of using computer-controlled robots in precision surgery?

To improve the accuracy and precision of surgical procedures

What is the function of the internal part of a cochlear implant?

To stimulate different regions of the basilar membrane, producing perceptions of sounds of different pitches

What is the potential advantage of using AI-assisted therapy in treating psychological disorders?

It provides easy accessibility and affordability, and people may be more willing to share their secrets with an avatar

What is the primary difference between the AI system used to analyze Facebook posts and the AI system used to analyze Instagram photos?

The AI system used to analyze Facebook posts focuses on the content of the posts, while the AI system used to analyze Instagram photos focuses on the visual features of the photos

What is the primary goal of using biofeedback therapy in treating anxiety disorders?

To coach patients in emotional identification and social skills

What is the primary challenge in developing self-driving cars?

The complexity of the algorithms required to navigate different scenarios

What is the potential benefit of using AI in mental health diagnosis?

It can provide a more accurate diagnosis than human general practitioners

What is the primary goal of using emotion recognition in AI systems?

To identify and respond to emotions in a more human-like way

What is the potential application of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) in restoring normal memory function?

To calculate what outputs would typically be generated in normal controls based on inputs, and then stimulate areas of the hippocampus to mimic a normally functioning brain

What is the primary goal of using AI-assisted therapy in treating psychological disorders?

To administer Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for disorders like depression or social anxiety

What is the primary advantage of using neural networks to process speech features in affective computing?

They can recognize emotions with 79% accuracy, equivalent to human-level performance

What is a potential application of affective computing in autism spectrum disorders?

Developing virtual therapists to help individuals with autism

What is the primary function of neural networks in affective computing?

To process features in speech, such as energy and fundamental frequency

What is a potential application of affective computing in therapy?

Developing virtual therapists to help individuals with autism

What is the purpose of the cameras in the face of the robot 'Nao'?

To analyze the customer's facial expressions and judge their mood

What is the benefit of robots like 'Nao' being able to greet customers in multiple languages?

To create a more efficient and streamlined customer service experience

What is the role of psychologists in the development of robots like 'Nao'?

To develop the robot's emotional intelligence and ability to recognize and respond to emotional cues

What is the potential application of robots like 'Nao' in autism spectrum disorders?

To provide a more efficient and personalized therapeutic experience for individuals with autism

What is the key aspect of affective computing in robots like 'Nao'?

The ability to recognize and respond to emotional cues

What is the primary goal of affective computing?

To develop machines that can recognize and respond to human emotions

What is the name of the robotic head designed to model the interaction between an infant and its caregiver?

Kismet

What is the primary benefit of imbuing machines with emotional intelligence?

To enable machines to recognize and respond to human emotions

What is the primary function of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS)?

To identify 46 distinct muscular movements in the human face

What is the primary goal of the FaceSense program at MIT?

To analyze facial expressions and head gestures

Study Notes

Perception: Visual Perception and Imagery

  • The brain has two pathways of visual processing: the dorsal stream (perception of spatial location) and ventral stream (perception of form)
  • David Marr's tri-level hypothesis emphasizes the importance of understanding how cognitive processes are implemented in the brain
  • The two pathways of visual processing involve the interconnected regions of the visual cortex, including the striate cortex, posterior parietal cortex, and inferior temporal cortex
  • Perception of spatial location and form are processed separately and simultaneously in the brain

Mental Representations and Storage

  • Analog code vs. propositional code: debate on whether mental representations are stored as images or as abstract propositions
  • Research supports the analog viewpoint, but some people on some tasks use a propositional code
  • Neural correlates of visual and verbal cognitive styles have been found in brain regions such as the fusiform gyrus and supramarginal gyrus

Blindness and Blindsight

  • Blindsight: ability to respond to visual stimuli without conscious awareness
  • Primary visual cortex and simple cells are involved in the processing of visual information
  • Extrastriate cortex is involved in depth perception and color coding

The Tri-Level Hypothesis

  • Computational level: highest, most abstract level of information processing
  • The tri-level hypothesis emphasizes the importance of understanding how cognitive processes are implemented in the brain

Auditory Perception: Effects of Music on Cognition

  • Music has been found to influence memory, decision making, and other cognitive processes
  • Study found that slow background music increased sales in a supermarket by 38%
  • Music in minor mode is more effective for purchasing decisions with high affective/low cognitive involvement

Individual Differences in Perception

  • Synesthesia: blending of senses, such as seeing numbers in specific colors
  • Research on individual differences in perception and cognition

Subliminal Perception and Priming

  • Subliminal perception: perception of stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness
  • Priming: activation of associated concepts or memories through subtle cues

Memory

  • Three-stage modal model of memory: sensory memory, short-term/working memory, and long-term memory
  • Types of long-term memory: explicit memory (conscious recall) and implicit memory (unconscious recall)
  • Neurobiology of memory processing: long-term potentiation, hippocampus, and frontal lobes
  • Memory disorders: evidence for separate memory systems, including Alzheimer's disease

Forgetting and Memory as Reconstruction

  • Three stages of memory processing and forgetting: encoding failure, storage decay, and retrieval failure
  • Memory as reconstruction: what we think we remember often never really occurred
  • Reconsolidation: rewriting of memories through retrieval and re-storage

Savant Syndrome and Hyperthymesia

  • Savant syndrome: exceptional abilities in one intellectual domain, such as music, art, or mathematics
  • Hyperthymesia: exceptional memory abilities

Scientific Explanations of Déjà Vu

  • Various theories, including neurological and psychological explanations### Three-Stage Model of Memory
  • The three-stage model of memory, also known as the Atkinson-Shiffrin model, consists of:
    • Sensory memory: Holds sensory information briefly (1/2 to 4 seconds) with a large capacity store.
    • Working memory or short-term memory: Processes information from sensory memory.
    • Long-term memory: Stores information for an extended period.

Sensory Memory

  • Sensory memory is a brief storage of sensory information that allows for selection and processing of information.
  • It is often considered a part of perception.
  • There are two types of sensory memory:
    • Iconic memory (photographic memory): Visual sensory memory.
    • Echoic memory: Auditory sensory memory.

Eidetic Imagery

  • Eidetic imagery, also known as photographic memory, is a rare ability to recall visual scenes in great detail.
  • Research has shown that some individuals, including children, can exhibit this ability.

Neuroscience and the Law

  • The use of neuroscientific evidence in legal defense is becoming increasingly important.
  • Lesions of the amygdala may cause loss of ability to learn fear conditioning and may also play a role in aggressive behavior.
  • Neurosurgeries can remove tumors that affect behavior, raising questions about the legal ramifications of such procedures.

Neurolaw

  • Neurolaw is an interdisciplinary field that explores the effects of new research findings in cognitive science on forensic psychiatry and legal practice.
  • It includes:
    • Eyewitness testimony.
    • Lie detection methods.
    • Use of neuroscientific evidence for legal defense or to predict criminal behavior.
    • Use of neuroscience-based interventions to diminish the risk of an offender reoffending.
    • Use of nootropics or mind-enhancing drugs to boost performance.

ACT-R (Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational)

  • ACT-R is a hybrid cognitive architecture that incorporates both symbolic and subsymbolic information processing.
  • It consists of:
    • Perceptual-motor layer.
    • Pattern-matching module.
    • Buffer.
    • Production rules.
  • ACT-R is used to model human cognition and decision-making.

Cheater Detection Module

  • The cheater detection module is a theory that explains why people are better at reasoning with deontic conditionals (related to permissions, entitlements, and prohibitions) than with non-deontic conditionals.
  • This module is thought to be a specialized module for monitoring social exchanges and detecting cheaters.

Object Permanence and Reasoning in Infancy

  • Object permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they are hidden from view.
  • Research has shown that infants as young as 3.5 months of age understand object permanence.
  • Infants' folk physics (innate understanding of basic principles governing the behavior of physical objects) differs from adult folk physics in certain ways.

Modeling Object Permanence

  • Object permanence can be modeled using recurrent neural networks (RNNs).
  • RNNs are designed to deal with time series and sequence data.
  • They can be used to model object permanence by predicting the reappearance of occluded objects.

Development of Self-Recognition

  • The rouge test is a method used to assess self-recognition in children.
  • Children typically pass the rouge test around 18-24 months of age.
  • Only a few other animals, including apes, dolphins, and elephants, are capable of passing the rouge test.

Mindreading

  • Mindreading is the ability to understand other people's mental states.
  • It is critical for human social interaction.
  • Pretend play, which emerges around 14 months of age, is a major milestone in the development of mindreading.
  • Children with autism spectrum disorder show impairments in mindreading.

False Belief Task

  • The false belief task is a test used to assess children's theory of mind mechanism (TOMM).
  • Children typically pass the false belief task around 4 years of age.
  • Research has shown that children may develop an implicit understanding of false belief earlier, around 15 months of age.### Cognitive Development
  • Infants who have had experience crawling develop wariness of heights by 6-7 months old, as shown in the visual cliff experiment
  • Piagettian stages of cognitive development:
    • Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years): Children act on objects, coordinate sensory experiences, and form schemas about objects
    • Pre-operational stage (ages 2-7): Children develop ability to symbolize objects and events, engage in pretend play, and have egocentric thinking
    • Concrete operations stage (7-11): Children develop higher-order schemas, understand reversible consequences of actions, and conserve liquid quantity, mass, and number
    • Formal operations stage (over age 11): Children develop ability to engage in hypothetical and deductive reasoning and think about abstract concepts

Object Permanence and Reasoning in Infancy

  • Understanding that an object continues to exist even though it is out of sight is a major accomplishment of the sensorimotor stage
  • Infants do not understand object permanence, which is why they respond to the game of peek-a-boo
  • Infants also won't reach under a cloth for a hidden toy, demonstrating their lack of understanding of object permanence

Mindreading

  • Pretend play is a way for children to develop their ability to understand other people's mental states
  • False belief task: children are told a story about a character who has a false belief, and are then asked to predict what the character will do
  • Theory of mind mechanism and shared attention mechanism are important for understanding other people's mental states

Strengths and Weaknesses of Piagettian Theory

  • Strengths: provides a good overview of children's thinking at different points, and is based on fascinating observations
  • Weaknesses: stage model depicts children's thinking as being more consistent than it actually is

Test your knowledge of visual perception and imagery, including Marr's tri-level hypothesis, hierarchical organization of visual processing, and how mental representations are stored in the brain.

Make Your Own Quizzes and Flashcards

Convert your notes into interactive study material.

Get started for free

More Quizzes Like This

Psychology of Visual Perception
32 questions

Psychology of Visual Perception

BraveBaritoneSaxophone avatar
BraveBaritoneSaxophone
Visual Perception 2023-2024
29 questions
Use Quizgecko on...
Browser
Browser