Antiviral Drugs Quiz

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126 Questions

What is a characteristic of viruses?

They are obligate intracellular parasites

When do clinical symptoms typically appear in viral diseases?

Late in the course of the disease

What is the nature of antiviral drugs?

Virustatic

Which virus infects only people?

Influenza B virus

What are the surface proteins of Influenza A virus used for?

Attachment and viral release

What is the preferred approach for dealing with viral respiratory tract infections according to the text?

Immunization

What is the mechanism of action of neuraminidase inhibitors?

Inhibiting the release of new virions

How are Oseltamivir and Zanamivir mainly excreted from the body?

Excretion through the urine

What is the preferred route of administration for Zanamivir?

Inhalation

What are the adverse effects of Oseltamivir?

Nausea and vomiting

What adverse effect is associated with Zanamivir?

Respiratory discomfort

What leads to resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors?

Mutations of the neuraminidase enzyme

Nausea and vomiting associated with Oseltamivir can be minimized by taking it on an empty stomach.

False

Zanamivir may cause respiratory discomfort, especially in patients with airway diseases.

True

Mutations in the neuraminidase enzyme can lead to resistance to both Oseltamivir and Zanamivir.

True

What is the mechanism of action of adamantane antivirals?

Block M2 proton ion channel to prevent viral uncoating

When is the administration of adamantane antivirals most effective against Influenza A viruses?

A+C

How is Amantadine excreted from the body?

Excreted unchanged in the urine

What is the primary use of Ribavirin?

Treatment of severe RSV bronchiolitis or pneumonia in children and infants

Which type of viruses is Ribavirin active against?

Both RNA and DNA viruses

In addition to RSV infections, what other virus can Ribavirin be effective against when combined with other medications?

Hepatitis C virus

Ribavirin is active against both RNA and DNA viruses.

True

Ribavirin can be used for the treatment of severe RSV bronchiolitis or pneumonia in children and infants.

True

What is the primary route of excretion for ribavirin and its metabolites?

Urine

How does ribavirin inhibit the replication of RNA and DNA viruses?

A+B

What is the preferred route of administration for ribavirin in the treatment of RSV infection?

Aerosolized via nebulizer

What is a contraindication for the use of ribavirin?

Pregnant patients

What adverse effect may aerosolized ribavirin cause?

Conjunctival or bronchial irritation

What adverse effect is dose dependent and transient when using ribavirin?

Anemia

Which hepatitis virus is an RNA virus?

Hepatitis C

Which is the following correct goal of chronic HBV therapy expect?

Suppression of HBV DNA to undetectable levels

What is the primary use of interferon alpha as mentioned in the text?

Treatment of HBV and HCV infections

What is the result of interferon alpha's binding to specific cell membrane receptors?

All of the above

Why is the use of interferon alpha uncommon, according to the text?

More effective and better tolerability agents available

How is Lamivudine activated within the host cell?

Via phosphorylation by host cell kinases

What limits the chronic therapy of Lamivudine?

Emergence of Lamivudine resistant HBV

Ribavirin is primarily used for the treatment of HIV infections.

False

Chronic therapy with Lamivudine is limited due to the emergence of Lamivudine resistant HBV.

True

What is the primary use of adefovir?

Inhibition of HBV DNA polymerase

Adefovir dipivoxil is a prodrug of Adefovir.

True

Ribavirin is primarily used for the treatment of HCV infections.

False

Zanamivir may cause respiratory discomfort, especially in patients with airway diseases.

True

Adefovir is primarily excreted in the urine. True or False?

True

Ribavirin is effective against both RNA and DNA viruses. True or False?

True

Lamivudine is limited in chronic therapy due to the emergence of Lamivudine resistant HBV. True or False?

True

What is the primary reason for the limited chronic therapy of Lamivudine?

Emergence of Lamivudine resistant HBV

What effect does Entecavir have on HIV?

B+D

Entecavir is activated by host cell kinases into triphosphate form. True or False?

True

Adefovir is primarily excreted in the urine. True or False?

True

Ribavirin is effective against both RNA and DNA viruses. True or False?

True

Entecavir is excreted primarily in the urine. True or False?

True

Adverse effects of Entecavir include headache, fatigue, and dizziness. True or False?

True

Ribavirin is effective against both RNA and DNA viruses. True or False?

True

Which adverse effect is commonly associated with Tenofovir?

Nausea

What is the primary route of excretion for Tenofovir and its metabolites?

Urine

What is the mechanism of action of Tenofovir against HBV?

Inhibition of HBV DNA polymerase

Tenofovir is activated by host cell kinases to diphosphate form. True or False?

True

Entecavir is primarily excreted in the urine. True or False?

False

Ribavirin is effective against both RNA and DNA viruses. True or False?

True

What is the primary route of administration for Telbivudine in the treatment of HBV?

Oral administration

What is the mechanism of action of Telbivudine against HBV?

Inhibits HBV DNA polymerase

What is the primary route of administration for Telbivudine in the treatment of HBV?

Oral

What is the primary adverse effect associated with Telbivudine?

Nausea and vomiting

What is the primary target of drugs used to treat Hepatitis C?

HCV RNA protease

What is the mechanism of action of antiviral drugs targeting HCV RNA polymerase?

Cleavage of polyprotein by proteases

How is Sofosbuvir activated within the host cell?

By host cell kinases to triphosphate form

Which medication is often combined with Sofosbuvir in the treatment of Hepatitis C?

Ribavirin and peginterferon alfa

What is the route of elimination for Sofosbuvir from the body?

Urinary excretion

What is the mechanism of action of Dasa buvir?

Inhibits HCV NS 5 B RNA dependent RNA polymerase

What is the primary route of excretion for Entecavir and its metabolites?

Urine

What is the characteristic of Adefovir's excretion from the body?

Primarily excreted in the urine

How are NS34A serine protease inhibitors administered in the treatment of Hepatitis C?

Orally

NS34A serine protease inhibitors prevent HCV RNA replication. True or False?

True

Ribavirin is administered with NS34A protease inhibitors. True or False?

True

NS5A replication complex inhibitors are metabolized by CYP 450 isoenzymes. True or False?

True

Ribavirin is primarily used for the treatment of HIV infections. True or False?

False

Which phase of viral infections are HSV and VZV antiviral drugs effective against?

Acute phase

What diseases are caused by HSV and VZV infections?

Cold sores and shingles

Which condition is NOT treated using antiviral drugs according to the text?

Common cold

Which virus infections are Acyclovir active against?

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV)

What is the primary route of excretion for Entecavir and its metabolites?

Urine

What is the mechanism of action of NS34A serine protease inhibitors used in the treatment of Hepatitis C?

Prevent HCV RNA replication

Which viruses are Acyclovir active against?

HSV and VZV

How does Acyclovir act in infected cells?

It selectively acts only in infected cells

What is the primary route of administration for Acyclovir?

Oral

Acyclovir is active against HSV 1, HSV 2, and VZV?

True

Acyclovir is primarily excreted in the urine?

True

Ribavirin is primarily used for the treatment of HIV infections?

False

What is the primary route of administration for topical Acyclovir in the treatment of cold sores?

Topical application to affected area

Which type of infections is Acyclovir most effective against?

Herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections

What is the primary route of excretion for Acyclovir and its metabolites?

Renal excretion

What adverse effects are associated with the intravenous route of Acyclovir administration?

Reversible renal toxicity and neurologic effects

What is the primary cause of resistance to Acyclovir in HSV or VZV infections?

Alterations in viral thymidine kinase

Which of the following is True adverse effect is commonly associated with the oral administration of Acyclovir ecxept?

Local irritation

How is Valacyclovir primarily converted in the body after oral administration?

Into acyclovir

What type of infections are Ganciclovir/Valganciclovir primarily used for?

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections

What is the primary route of administration for Ganciclovir and Valganciclovir?

Intravenous (IV) and intravitreal

Valacyclovir is rapidly converted into acyclovir after oral administration.

True

Ganciclovir/Valganciclovir have a similar mechanism of action as acyclovir/valacyclovir.

True

Ribavirin is primarily used for the treatment of HIV infections.

False

What is the primary target of antiretroviral agents in the treatment of HIV infection?

A + B

What is the main cause of immunosuppression in patients with HIV infection?

Decreased CD4 cell count

Which of the following is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) used in the initial therapy for HIV infection?

Didanosine

How are NRTIs activated within the host cell?

Activated to the triphosphate form by host cell kinases

Tenofovir is activated to the triphosphate form by host cell kinases. True or False?

True

NRTIs have low affinity to host cell DNA polymerase. True or False?

False

NRTIs are primarily excreted renally, except for abacavir which is hepatically eliminated. True or False?

True

Abacavir hypersensitivity can present with fever, fatigue, rash, GI disturbances, and respiratory distress. True or False?

True

Toxicities due to inhibition of mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma include lactic acidosis with hepatic steatosis and lipodystrophy. True or False?

True

What is the primary route of administration for Abacavir?

Oral

Which adverse effect is associated with NRTIs due to inhibition of mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma?

Lactic acidosis with hepatic steatosis

What is the primary route of excretion for zidovudine and most NRTIs?

Renal

Which of the following is a common adverse effect associated with Abacavir?

A+B

What is the primary route of administration for Tenofovir in its treatment of HIV infection?

Oral administration

NRTIs can cause lactic acidosis with hepatic steatosis and lipodystrophy. True or False?

True

Which of the following is NOT a recommended NNRTI in initial antiretroviral regimens?

Ribavirin

What is the 2nd generation NNRTI active against HIV strains resistant to 1st generation NNRTIs?

Etravirine

Which NNRTI is specifically recommended for patients with swallowing difficulty due to its small tablet form?

Rilpivirine

What is the primary mechanism of action of NNRTIs and PIs in the treatment of HIV infection?

Reversible inhibition of HIV aspartyl protease retropepsin

What is the main requirement for boosting the bioavailability of PIs in combination therapy?

Potent inhibitors of CYP 3A isoenzymes

Which antiretroviral drug blocks the CCR5 coreceptor to prevent HIV entry?

Maraviroc

What adverse effect is associated with the SC injection of Enfuvirtide?

Pain, erythema, and induration

Which antiretroviral drug binds to the viral gp41 and is required for entry into CD4 cells?

Enfuvirtide

Which class of antiretroviral drugs inhibits the insertion of proviral DNA into the host cell genome?

Integrase inhibitors

Which adverse effects are commonly associated with the use of Integrase inhibitors?

Nausea and diarrhea

How is Tenofovir primarily excreted from the body?

Renally

Test your knowledge of viruses as obligate intracellular parasites with no cell wall, cell membrane, or organelles, and clinical symptoms appearing late in the course of the disease. Explore antiviral drugs as virustatic agents and their potential use as prophylactic agents.

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