# Variance and Statistical Testing Logic Quiz

AppropriateIvy
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## 30 Questions

### What is the purpose of calculating percentiles?

To find the percent of scores below a given score

### Why is random sampling from a normally distributed population likely to result in a normally distributed sample?

Each individual has an equal chance of being selected

### What is the significance of z-scores in calculating percentiles?

To convert raw scores into a common scale for percentile calculation

### How does the rarity of a bean color change as we move further from the mean?

The rarity increases as we move further from the mean

Purple

### What allows us to calculate percentiles in a distribution?

Knowing the area under the curve

### What does within subjects variance measure?

How much people within a group differ among themselves

### Which of the following is true about within group variance?

It reflects naturally occurring individual differences

### What is the most commonly reported measure of within group variance?

Standard deviation (s.d.)

### Between subjects variance refers to the variance between:

Sample means or groups

### What does between subjects variance measure?

Difference between sample means of different groups

### What is the formula to convert a z score to a t score?

T = (z x 10) + 50

### In statistical terms, what does between subjects variance NOT refer to?

Difference between any two people in a group

T score

### What does a T score of 70 indicate?

It is 20 points above the mean

### In z scores, what does a mean of 0 indicate?

The score is exactly at the mean

### Why are T scores easier to explain compared to z scores?

Because T scores represent points above or below the mean

### How can we use multiple z scores on psychologically meaningful measures from the same person?

By looking at how each z score deviates from its respective mean

Type I Error

### When does a type II error occur?

The null hypothesis is true and not rejected

### What does statistical significance indicate about group differences?

Differences are not due to chance

Type I Error

Sample size

### Which statistic can quantify the practical significance of a finding?

$\eta$ statistic

### What is the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient 'r' commonly used for?

To measure the relationship between two sets of observations

### What does a z score help determine in psychometric tests?

The number of standard deviations a data point is from the mean

### Why can inferential statistics never prove that observed differences are not due to chance?

Because statistical tests estimate the odds that results are not due to chance

### What is one of the key limitations mentioned regarding statistical tests like the t-test and correlation coefficient?

They can't fully eliminate the possibility of chance influencing results

### What characteristic is common between naturally occurring phenomena like IQ and heights, and statistical test results like 'r' correlation coefficient?

They follow a bell-shaped curve distribution

### What factor contributes to providing stronger support for the validity of a study?

Conducting multiple replications of the study

Test your understanding of variance and statistical testing logic. Explore the concepts of within group variance, between group variance, and co-variance to estimate significance levels.

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