Types of Cohesion in Social Psychology

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What is the main focus of Lewin and Festinger in relation to social cohesion?

The impact of attraction on cohesion

According to cognitive dissonance theory, what creates psychological tension within a group?

Inconsistent behavior with thoughts and beliefs

What determines a group's level of cohesiveness according to the text?

Attraction, stability, size, structure

How does cognitive dissonance theory explain the reaction of loosely affiliated group members to prophecy failure?

Acknowledgment of the failure due to weak commitment

What belief is central to the concept of collective efficacy in a group?

The group's capability to organize and execute required actions

Why does cognitive dissonance theory predict different reactions based on commitment strength to a prophecy?

The level of commitment affects the individual's perception of failure

Which negative effect of power refers to the loss of perspective-taking and the tendency to misjudge others?

The Lucifer effect

According to the passage, what is the primary reason for the occurrence of pluralistic ignorance in a group?

The group has a strong set of prevailing attitudes and beliefs that are privately disagreed with by individual members.

What is the primary function of role differentiation in groups, as described in the passage?

To increase the number of roles and decrease their scope, leading to more specialized roles.

Which term describes the process where powerholders extract obedience from group members by starting with minor demands and gradually increasing them?

Foot-in-the-door technique

What did the statement 'Power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts absolutely!' imply about the impact of power?

Absolute power results in absolute corruption

Which of the following is NOT one of the five classes of roles described in the passage?

Intermediate member

What is the primary function of task roles, as described in the passage?

To relate to getting the work done, such as initiating structure, providing task-related feedback, and setting goals.

Which dysfunctional group process is linked to the rise of revolutionary coalitions as more members rebel against authority?

Reactance

What type of actions does the Lucifer effect suggest that even benign individuals can be induced to perform under extreme powerful conditions?

Negative and immoral actions

What is the primary consequence of role ambiguity, as described in the passage?

It creates stress and tension for groups and group members.

Which of the following best describes the relationship between role differentiation and socialization, as discussed in the passage?

Socialization leads to increased role differentiation over time.

What is the main difference between compliance and congruence in Asch's study on conformity?

Compliance involves publicly accepting but privately maintaining original beliefs, while congruence refers to natural agreement between the individual and the group.

In terms of conformity rates, what does Bond and Smith's review suggest about individuals in collectivistic societies compared to those in individualistic societies?

Individuals in collectivistic societies conform more than those in individualistic societies.

Which group tends to create compliance according to Moscovici's conversion theory?

Majorities

How do women and men differ in their approach to conformity within groups, based on the text?

Women use conformity to create independence, while men use nonconformity to increase group harmony.

What is the key factor that determines when people resist the group's influence and instead change the group, according to Moscovici's conversion theory?

The level of consistency in minority influence

How do individuals displaying anti-conformity differ from those displaying independence within a group?

Anti-conformity involves deliberate defiance of the group, while independence reflects a natural disagreement with the majority.

Which of the following is NOT an important element of group structure?

Leadership styles

Which of the following statements about descriptive norms is TRUE?

They describe typical or normal behavior in the group.

Based on the information provided, which of the following is a proscriptive norm?

Do not urinate inside the airplane.

What is the underlying pattern that defines and organizes a group?

The group's structure of roles, norms, and networks

Which of the following statements about group structure is NOT supported by the information provided?

Group structure is rigid and unchanging.

According to the passage, why do norms develop in groups?

To regulate group behavior and interactions

Study Notes

Types of Cohesion

  • Emotional cohesion: shared emotions among group members
  • Social cohesion: emphasized by Lewin and Festinger, focusing on attraction in individuals and groups
  • Task cohesion: strength of a group's cohesive efforts, influenced by factors such as attraction, stability, size, and structure

Factors Influencing Cohesion

  • Cognitive Dissonance theory: underlying psychological tension created when an individual's behavior is inconsistent with their thoughts and beliefs
  • Collective efficacy: shared belief among group members that the group is capable of organizing and executing actions
  • Attraction: bond between group members, influencing cohesion
  • Stability: group's stability, influencing cohesion
  • Size and structure: group's size and structure, influencing cohesion

Group Processes

  • Power corrupts: excessive self-regard, risk-taking, loss of perspective-taking, and misjudging others
  • The Lucifer effect: even benign individuals can perform negative, immoral actions in powerful groups
  • Coercive methods: linked to dysfunctional group processes, including revolutionary coalitions, reactance, and disrupted interpersonal relations
  • Pluralistic Ignorance: situation where virtually every group member privately disagrees with the group's prevailing attitudes and beliefs

Group Roles and Stress

  • Five classes of roles: prospective member, new member, full member, marginal member, and ex-member
  • Role differentiation: gradual increase in the number of roles and decrease in their scope over time
  • Role ambiguity: poorly defined behaviors associated with a role
  • Task roles: relate to getting the work done, including initiating structure, providing task-related feedback, and setting goals
  • Relationship roles: focus on social aspects, such as maintaining group harmony

Conformity and Group Pressure

  • Asch's study: measured people's decisions when the majority of their group made errors judging line lengths
  • Three kinds of social responses to group pressure: compliance, conversion, and congruence
  • Conformity rates vary across time, cultures, sexes, and group settings
  • Personality traits related to conformity: women conform slightly more than men, primarily in face-to-face groups

Resisting Group Influence

  • Conversion theory: consistent minorities can be influential, although indirectly and delayed
  • Tuckman's five-stage model: describes group development, including dependence, pressure to conform, and proscriptive norms

Group Structure

  • Definition: underlying pattern of roles, norms, and networks of relations among members
  • Three important elements: norms, roles, and networks of connections among members
  • Norms: implicit, self-generating, and stable standards for group behavior, regulating group behavior and interactions

Explore the different types of cohesion in social psychology, including emotional cohesion, social cohesion, and task cohesion. Learn about the factors that contribute to a group's level of cohesiveness and the theories that explain group dynamics.

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