Trent University Biology 3180 Lab #3: Roots and Leaves Part 1 Quiz

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7 Questions

Match the following leaf types with their descriptions:

Simple leaves = Consist of one blade connected to the petiole Compound leaves = Have several leaflets sharing one petiole Palmate leaflets = Arise from a central area, similar to fingers arising from the palm Pinnate leaflets = Arise in rows along a central midline

Match the following venation types with their characteristics:

Parallel veins = Extend the entire length of the leaf with little or no cross-linking Pinnately veined leaves = Have one major vein (midrib) from which other veins branch Palmately veined leaves = Have several main veins each having branches Continuous veins = Veins of vascular tissue in leaves are continuous with vascular bundles in stems

Match the following phyllotaxis types with their descriptions:

Opposite phyllotaxis = Refers to two leaves per node located on opposite sides of the stem Alternate phyllotaxis = Refers to one leaf per node, with leaves appearing first on one side of the stem and then on another Whorled phyllotaxis = Refers to more than two leaves per node Parallel phyllotaxis = Refers to parallel arrangement of leaves along the stem

Match the following internal leaf anatomy terms with their meanings:

Petiole = Attaches the leaf blade to the stem Blade = The main photosynthetic structure of the leaf Midrib = The central vein of a compound leaf that gives rise to other veins Vascular bundles = Continuous with veins of vascular tissue in leaves

Match the following root system types with their primary characteristic:

Fibrous (diffuse) root system = Consists of thin, branching roots spread out in the soil Taproot system = Consists of a large central root with smaller lateral roots branching off Adventitious roots = Arise from an organ other than the root, such as stem or leaves Mature Ranunculus root = Cross-section reveals the internal structure of a fully developed root

Match the following functions with their respective roles in the root system:

Anchor the plant to the soil = Roots provide stability and prevent the plant from being uprooted Absorb water and dissolved minerals = Roots take up essential nutrients and moisture from the soil Translocate water and dissolved minerals = Roots transport absorbed water and nutrients throughout the plant Vegetative propagation = Adventitious roots enable plants to reproduce asexually from stems or leaves

Match the following structures with their functions in a root system:

Cross-section of a mature Ranunculus root = Reveals the internal anatomy of a fully developed root Cross-section of a young Ranunculus root = Shows the internal structure of an immature root Differences between tap roots, fibrous roots, and adventitious roots diagram = Illustrates the visual disparities between different types of root systems Adventitious roots arising from stem or leaves = Demonstrates an example of non-traditional root development

Study Notes

Leaf Types

  • Leaf types include simple, compound, and modified leaves
  • Simple leaves have a single blade, while compound leaves have multiple leaflets
  • Modified leaves have altered forms, such as tendrils or spines

Venation Types

  • Venation types include unicostate, multicostate, and parallel venation
  • Unicostate venation has a single midvein, while multicostate venation has multiple veins
  • Parallel venation has veins that run parallel to each other

Phyllotaxis Types

  • Phyllotaxis types include alternate, opposite, whorled, and spiral arrangements
  • Alternate arrangement has leaves attached in an alternating pattern
  • Opposite arrangement has leaves attached in pairs on either side of the stem
  • Whorled arrangement has leaves attached in a circular pattern
  • Spiral arrangement has leaves attached in a spiral pattern around the stem

Internal Leaf Anatomy

  • Internal leaf anatomy includes terms such as cuticle, epidermis, and mesophyll
  • Cuticle is a waxy outer layer, epidermis is the outer cell layer, and mesophyll is the inner tissue
  • Mesophyll is divided into palisade and spongy tissue

Root System Types

  • Root system types include taproot, fibrous, and adventitious roots
  • Taproot is a single, dominant root, while fibrous roots are multiple, branching roots
  • Adventitious roots are roots that arise from stems or leaves

Root System Functions

  • Functions of the root system include absorption, anchorage, and storage
  • Absorption involves taking in water and nutrients, anchorage provides stability
  • Storage involves storing food and nutrients

Root System Structures

  • Structures in the root system include root hairs, root cap, and xylem
  • Root hairs increase surface area for absorption, root cap protects the root tip
  • Xylem is responsible for transporting water and minerals

Test your knowledge about the root systems of vascular plants and their functions. This quiz will help you associate the structures of roots with their known or suspected functions.

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