Motivation, Personality and Affect

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131 Questions

What is the primary reason for people to purchase products in contemporary consumer societies?

What is brand personality?

What are the five dimensions of brand personality identified by Aaker?

Why is it important to focus on the dimensional level of brand personality?

What is the main contribution of the current study to the literature on brand personality?

What is brand personality?

What is anthropomorphic theory?

What is Aaker's brand personality scale?

What is the sincerity dimension of brand personality?

What is the excitement dimension of brand personality?

What is the competence dimension of brand personality?

What is the ruggedness dimension of brand personality?

What was the purpose of the study?

What method was used to analyze the interviews?

What is the focus of the study?

Which product categories are typically associated with sincere brands?

What contributes to the image of sincere brands?

What are sincere brands strongly associated with?

What are some characteristics of brands associated with competence?

What are crucial factors for judging a brand's competence?

Which product categories are often associated with exciting brands?

What is the 'halo effect'?

What are some characteristics of sophisticated brands?

What role do aesthetics play in perceptions of sophistication?

What is subjective and varies among consumers when it comes to brand personality?

What are some commonalities among unexciting or unsophisticated brands according to the study?

Which category of products are typically associated with brands perceived as sincere?

What contributes to the image of sincere brands as genuinely interested in their customers' well-being?

What is a crucial factor for judging a brand's competence according to the text?

Which product categories are often associated with exciting brands?

What is the 'halo effect' in relation to brand personality?

What plays a crucial role in perceptions of sophistication according to the text?

Which brand has developed a feminine image for a new product aimed at women according to the text?

What is a common characteristic of unexciting brands according to the text?

What contributes to the image of sincere brands as genuinely interested in their customers' well-being?

What is the perception of highly sophisticated brands?

What is the perception of unsophisticated brands?

What is the perception of sophisticated brands?

What is the perception of everyday use brands?

What is the perception of masculine brands?

What is the perception of Land Rover?

What is the perception of Harley Davidson?

What is the perception of feminine brands?

Which product categories are over-represented among brands that consumers decidedly do not associate with a particular personality dimension?

What is the relationship between brand personality dimensions and product categories?

What is the relationship between company associations and perceptions of product brands?

Which brand personality dimension is associated with all three types of benefits: functional, experiential, and symbolic?

What is the relationship between product category and personality?

Which brand personality dimension is mainly related to the functional benefits of brands (product quality) and the qualifications of employees?

What is the relationship between brands that consumers perceive as lacking on a particular personality dimension?

Which brand personality dimension relates to both symbolic and experiential benefits?

What is the main benefit of understanding consumer associations between brand personality dimensions and product categories?

Why should brand managers consider product category personality-related considerations when planning brand extension strategies?

What is the relevance of perceptions of sincerity in brand performance?

What is the relevance of competence in functional brand benefits?

In which type of product categories may competence play a major role in consumer judgments as a proxy for product quality?

What is the main limitation of Aaker's brand personality scale?

What is the main influence of company associations on consumers' perceptions of brand personality?

What are consumer perceptions of brand personality dimensions related to, in addition to symbolic brand benefits?

What is motivation according to Nevid?

What is the core model of expectancy theory?

What is the focus of drive theory?

What is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?

What is the major criticism of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?

What are the two criteria used to determine McGuire's Psychological Motives?

What is the need for consistency?

What is the difference between cognitive preservation motives and cognitive growth motives?

What is the difference between affective preservation motives and affective growth motives?

What is the focus of goal direction-pathways?

What is the difference between drive theory and expectancy theory?

What are the key concepts of motivation according to Ryan & Deci?

What is the definition of motivation according to Nevid?

What is the core model of expectancy theory proposed by Vroom?

What is the focus of drive theory?

What is homeostasis according to drive theory?

What is the main criticism of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?

What are the two criteria used to determine McGuire's Psychological Motives?

What is the need for consistency?

What is the need for tension reduction?

What is the teleological need?

What is the difference between cognitive and affective motives according to McGuire's Psychological Motives?

What is the VIE model?

What is the difference between preservation and growth oriented motives according to McGuire's Psychological Motives?

What is the need for autonomy?

Which behavior can result from the need for stimulation?

What is the need for tension reduction?

What is the need for ego defense?

What is the need for reinforcement?

What is the need for affiliation?

What is the need for identification?

What are manifest motives?

What are latent motives?

What is avoidance-avoidance?

What is approach-approach?

What is approach-avoidance?

What is motivation?

What are the key concepts of motivation according to Ryan & Deci?

What is Drive Theory?

What is homeostasis?

What is Expectancy Theory?

What is the Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy Model?

What are the two motivation theories mentioned in the text?

What are the criticisms of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?

What are the two criteria used to determine McGuire's Psychological Motives?

What are the Cognitive Preservation Motives according to McGuire's Psychological Motives?

What are the Affective Growth Motives according to McGuire's Psychological Motives?

What is the Need for Consistency according to McGuire's Psychological Motives?

What is personality?

What is trait theory?

What are personality traits?

What is an example of a trait relevant to consumer behavior?

What is the difference between single-trait and multi-trait approaches?

What is an example of a single-trait approach?

What is the Five Factor Model?

What is brand personality?

What is anthropomorphism?

What are the three important advertising tactics for communicating brand personality?

What is personality?

What is trait theory?

What is innovativeness?

What is brand personality?

What is the Five-Factor Model?

What is the desire of hero brands?

What is anthropomorphism?

What is frugality?

What are the three important advertising tactics for communicating brand personality?

What is the difference between emotion and affect?

What is the difference between emotions and moods?

How can marketers use emotions to their advantage?

What is mood congruency?

What is sadvertising?

Summary

Dimensions of Brand Personality and Their Importance in Consumer Behavior

  • Consumers tend to build relationships with brands and imbue them with personality characteristics.
  • Anthropomorphic theory explains why people tend to grant human qualities to non-human objects, including brands.
  • By imbuing brands with human personality traits, consumers use them as a language to communicate their identities, status, and aspirations in social groups.
  • Brand personality consists of the set of human characteristics associated with a brand, and it has gained increasing attention in the marketing literature.
  • Aaker's brand personality scale is the most widely used and well-developed, consisting of sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, and ruggedness dimensions.
  • The focus on Aaker's dimensions is warranted due to their psychometric rigor and linguistic accessibility in discussion with consumers.
  • The study aims to explore what brands/products consumers perceive as exemplary or not exemplary of each brand personality dimension, and what common characteristics emerge across these brands.
  • The study also aims to identify which brands consumers perceive as excluded from possessing a particular personality dimension and what common characteristics emerge across these brands for each personality dimension.
  • The sincerity dimension includes brand personality traits such as down-to-earth, honest, and wholesome.
  • The excitement dimension includes traits such as daring, spirited, and imaginative.
  • The competence dimension includes traits such as up-to-date, reliable, and intelligent.
  • The sophistication dimension includes traits such as successful, upper-class, and charming.
  • The ruggedness dimension includes traits such as outdoorsy, tough, and daring.

Interview-based study on consumers' conceptualizations of brand personality

  • The study involved conducting interviews with 66 graduate students from a Scandinavian business school.
  • The purpose of the study was to understand the concept of brand personality.
  • The average age of the informants was 23.6 years, with 40 females and 26 males.
  • Students were recruited by announcing the opportunity to participate in the interviews during three graduate courses.
  • Each informant was paid 100 Norwegian crones (or approximately 18 US dollars) for their participation.
  • Interviews lasted between 50 and 60 minutes and were recorded with the informant's permission.
  • Aaker’s (1997) brand personality scale was presented to the informants and all five dimensions were explained in detail.
  • Informants were asked about their perceptions of two out of the five dimensions of brand personality in Aaker’s scale.
  • The interview procedure yielded 80 pages of double-spaced text, after transcription.
  • The interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method.
  • The first author created initial coding categories that reflected the consistency that emerged for each brand personality dimension.
  • The most illuminatory exemplars of the themes were retained for the paper, and incorporated into the interpretation section and subsequent tables.

Consumer Perception of Brand Personality

  • The study focuses on understanding how consumers associate brands with different dimensions of brand personality.

  • Brands associated with sincerity are typically encountered in everyday life, such as those in the beverage, food, cosmetics, and supermarket product categories.

  • Guarantees and personal selling contribute to the image of sincere brands as genuinely interested in their customers' well-being.

  • Sincere brands are strongly associated with family and family-related activities, high morals, and positive experiences that meet or exceed expectations.

  • Brands perceived as insincere often have unethical business practices, cheat consumers, or are too exclusive for the average person.

  • Brands associated with competence are often market leaders, have a long history, and are staffed by highly qualified employees.

  • Competent brands are perceived to be of high quality, and consumers report positive experiences while using them.

  • Negative or positive product experience and the degree to which the product meets consumers' expectations are crucial factors for judging a brand's competence.

  • Brands perceived as exciting are rooted in the car, beverage, and clothes categories, and often help consumers fulfill their aspirations to be perceived as more exciting in the eyes of their reference groups.

  • Aesthetics play an important role in forming perceptions of brand personality, and exciting brands often offer consumers exciting experiences.

  • The personality descriptors associated with a brand arise from the underlying usage situation and emotions or feelings evoked by the brand.

  • Consumer perceptions of brand personality develop from product experiences in which performance expectations are met or exceeded, and competence associations seem to require repeated expectations of consistent performance over time.Consumer Perception of Exciting and Sophisticated Brands

  • Exciting brands are associated with new experiences, warmer weather, and special occasions.

  • The "halo effect" is when a brand is associated with exciting experiences, making the brand itself exciting.

  • Exciting brands are used by exciting people, and user imagery plays a role in brand personality.

  • Ads are a source of excitement for brands, often depicting young people having fun or engaging in exciting activities.

  • Unexciting brands are often everyday products or those with a mundane image.

  • Sophisticated brands are associated with high-end markets, designer clothes, and exclusive car brands.

  • Aesthetics play a crucial role in perceptions of sophistication, with elegant simplicity often being a key characteristic.

  • User imagery, including celebrity endorsements, is often used to convey brand personality and sophistication.

  • Cosmetics brands are sometimes perceived as sophisticated, with femininity and beauty associations.

  • Volvo is an example of a brand that has developed a feminine image for a new product aimed at women.

  • Perception of sophistication is subjective and varies among consumers.

  • Informants in the study mentioned a wide variety of brands in different product categories, making it difficult to summarize commonalities among unexciting or unsophisticated brands.

Consumer Perception of Brand Personality

  • The study focuses on understanding how consumers associate brands with different dimensions of brand personality.

  • Brands associated with sincerity are typically encountered in everyday life, such as those in the beverage, food, cosmetics, and supermarket product categories.

  • Guarantees and personal selling contribute to the image of sincere brands as genuinely interested in their customers' well-being.

  • Sincere brands are strongly associated with family and family-related activities, high morals, and positive experiences that meet or exceed expectations.

  • Brands perceived as insincere often have unethical business practices, cheat consumers, or are too exclusive for the average person.

  • Brands associated with competence are often market leaders, have a long history, and are staffed by highly qualified employees.

  • Competent brands are perceived to be of high quality, and consumers report positive experiences while using them.

  • Negative or positive product experience and the degree to which the product meets consumers' expectations are crucial factors for judging a brand's competence.

  • Brands perceived as exciting are rooted in the car, beverage, and clothes categories, and often help consumers fulfill their aspirations to be perceived as more exciting in the eyes of their reference groups.

  • Aesthetics play an important role in forming perceptions of brand personality, and exciting brands often offer consumers exciting experiences.

  • The personality descriptors associated with a brand arise from the underlying usage situation and emotions or feelings evoked by the brand.

  • Consumer perceptions of brand personality develop from product experiences in which performance expectations are met or exceeded, and competence associations seem to require repeated expectations of consistent performance over time.Consumer Perception of Exciting and Sophisticated Brands

  • Exciting brands are associated with new experiences, warmer weather, and special occasions.

  • The "halo effect" is when a brand is associated with exciting experiences, making the brand itself exciting.

  • Exciting brands are used by exciting people, and user imagery plays a role in brand personality.

  • Ads are a source of excitement for brands, often depicting young people having fun or engaging in exciting activities.

  • Unexciting brands are often everyday products or those with a mundane image.

  • Sophisticated brands are associated with high-end markets, designer clothes, and exclusive car brands.

  • Aesthetics play a crucial role in perceptions of sophistication, with elegant simplicity often being a key characteristic.

  • User imagery, including celebrity endorsements, is often used to convey brand personality and sophistication.

  • Cosmetics brands are sometimes perceived as sophisticated, with femininity and beauty associations.

  • Volvo is an example of a brand that has developed a feminine image for a new product aimed at women.

  • Perception of sophistication is subjective and varies among consumers.

  • Informants in the study mentioned a wide variety of brands in different product categories, making it difficult to summarize commonalities among unexciting or unsophisticated brands.

Consumer Perceptions of Brand Sophistication and Ruggedness

  • Highly sophisticated brands are perceived as unique and exclusive, with elegant aesthetics that are used to impress others.
  • Sophisticated brands are often perceived as feminine, but not exclusively.
  • Unsophisticated brands are usually cheap, mass-produced, and of bad quality.
  • Everyday use brands are also considered unsophisticated, even if they are of high quality.
  • Masculine brands are perceived as unsophisticated because they lack a feminine touch.
  • Ruggedness dimension is mostly represented by stereotypically masculine brands, such as Land Rover, Harley Davidson, Marlboro, and men's cosmetics and clothes.
  • Land Rover is associated with outdoorsy, adventurous, and masculine people.
  • Harley Davidson is considered a symbol of masculine culture and freedom.
  • Brands used by celebrities are associated with elegance, beauty, and sophistication.
  • Feminine brands are perceived as not rugged and are often associated with elegance, beauty, and charm.
  • Family- and children-related brands are also perceived as not rugged.
  • Rugged brands are associated with masculinity, while non-rugged brands are associated with femininity and family.

Consumer perceptions of brand personality dimensions and their implications for brand management

  • Consumers associate different brand personality dimensions with specific product categories.
  • Some product categories are over-represented among brands that consumers decidedly do not associate with a particular personality dimension.
  • Product categories themselves possess a personality, and further investigation on the link between product category and personality is needed.
  • Brands that consumers perceive as strong on respective personality dimensions share commonalities beyond just a product category.
  • Brands which consumers perceive as lacking on a particular personality dimension also often share common attributes.
  • Performance expectations are important in perceptions of two dimensions in particular: sincerity and competence.
  • Company associations also carry over to perceptions of product brands.
  • Consumer perceptions of the five brand personality dimensions are differentially related to brand benefits.
  • Sincerity perceptions are associated with all three types of benefits: functional, experiential, and symbolic.
  • Competence perceptions relate mainly to the functional benefits of brands (product quality) and the qualifications of employees.
  • Perceptions of excitement relate to both symbolic and experiential benefits.
  • The issue of ‘masculine’ and ‘feminine’ brands could also be expanded within the study of brand personality.

Managerial Implications and Theoretical Contributions of Brand Personality

  • Understanding consumer associations between brand personality dimensions and product categories can help brand managers develop tailored strategies to strengthen or downplay specific dimensions.
  • Brand managers should consider product category personality-related considerations when planning brand extension strategies.
  • Brands with strong personalities can be used as guidelines for product development and marketing campaigns.
  • Perceptions of sincerity may operate as a points-of-parity (POPs) factor that develops from expectation-congruent brand performances.
  • Perceptions of competence are relevant to functional brand benefits and can be strengthened by adding relevant associations about the competence of employees.
  • In "credence" product categories, competence may play a major role in consumer judgments as a proxy for product quality.
  • Aaker's brand personality scale was used for this research, but it has limitations, including being culture-specific and needing a higher level of abstraction in the hierarchical organization of personality characteristics.
  • This study contributes to the literature by identifying which product categories are associated with different personality dimensions and establishing a link between consumers' performance expectations and perceptions of brand sincerity and competence.
  • Company associations (e.g. moral values, position on the market, history, employees) influence consumers' perceptions of brand personality.
  • Consumer perceptions of brand personality dimensions are related to functional and experiential benefits, in addition to symbolic brand benefits.
  • The study suggests the need for a revision of the brand personality scale to account for the gender dimension and aesthetics and emotions connected to a brand.
  • The findings encourage further study of brand personality characteristics and the construct of brand personality in general.

Description

Test your knowledge on the different stages of perception and the impact of olfactory communication and sound in marketing with this quiz. Learn about exposure, attention, and interpretation and how they play a role in creating meaning from raw stimuli. Explore the world of scent marketing and discover how it can create arousal and desire. Find out the key concepts in using sound to communicate ideas and influence behavior. Challenge yourself with this quiz and become an expert in the world of perception and marketing.

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