T1 L17: Synaptic plasticity, 25/10/23, NS T1 L17: Synaptic plasticity, 25/10/23, NS

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30 Questions

Which neurotransmitter is involved in the feedback mechanism from the postsynaptic neuron to the presynaptic neuron in long-term potentiation (LTP)?

Nitric Oxide (NO)

Which enzyme is activated by Nitric Oxide (NO) in the presynaptic terminal during LTP?

Guanylyl cyclase

What is the duration of the early phase of LTP?

Minutes to hours

What is the duration of the late phase of LTP?

Days to months

What is the effect of low frequency stimulation (LFS) on EPSP amplitude?

Decrease

What is the role of the NMDA receptor in both LTP and spatial learning?

It is essential for both LTP and spatial learning

What is the effect of Alcohol on LTP processes?

It disrupts LTP processes

Which drug is controversial in terms of improving memory?

physostigmine

What is the molecular mechanism for memory called?

Long Term Potentiation

Which aspect of memory and LTP formation is involved in CREB?

consolidation

Which stimulation is involved in LTD?

High Frequency stimulation

What is the function of physostigmine?

Boost cholinergic function

Which drug is known to have cognitive enhancing effects in impaired subjects?

acetylcholinesterases

Which learning process involves activity dependent synaptogenesis?

Cerebellar learning

Which protein is involved in memory and LTP formation?

cAMP Response Element Binding protein

Which drug is known to restore performance in animals with lesions?

cholinergic drugs

According to the text, what is the definition of learning?

The response of the brain to environmental events

What is Hebb's rule?

All of the above

What are the three types of memory mentioned in the text?

Semantic, Episodic, and Procedural memory

According to the text, what is the connectome?

The map of neural connections in the brain

What is LTP?

Long-Term Potentiation

What is LTD?

Long-Term Depression

According to the text, what are some drugs that influence memory?

Alcohol, Benzodiazepines, and Cholinergic drugs

What is the mechanism by which learning occurs and memories can be formed in the brain?

Strengthening and weakening synaptic connections

What happens when the hippocampal neuron is individually stimulated by Cell A, Cell B, or Cell C?

The EPSP created is not sufficient to fire an action potential

What happens when cells A and B are activated together in the hippocampal neuron?

The coincident EPSPs may summate sufficiently to cause an action potential

What is the result of repeatedly making the association between the sight and smell of a rose in the hippocampal neuron?

The synapses of cells A and B will be strengthened

What is the role of long-term potentiation (LTP) in synaptic strengthening?

LTP is the mechanism underlying synaptic strengthening

What is the specific characteristic of LTP at one synapse?

LTP at one synapse is not propagated to adjacent synapses

What is the role of CaMKII in synaptic strengthening?

CaMKII phosphorylates existing AMPA receptors and stimulates the insertion of new AMPA receptors

Study Notes

Neuroscience of Learning and Memory: Key Concepts and Drug Effects

  • The presentation is for personal use only and must not be copied or used outside of BSMS.
  • The brain encodes memories at different levels: electrophysiological, molecular, and structural.
  • Drugs like alcohol, benzodiazepines, cholinergic drugs, and cognitive enhancers can influence memory.
  • The connectome is the map of neural connections in the brain.
  • Learning involves adaptive changes in synaptic connectivity and alters behavior.
  • Hebb's rule states that neurons that fire together wire together, strengthening synaptic connections.
  • Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a mechanism underlying synaptic strengthening and memory formation.
  • LTP involves the activation of protein kinase C and calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), leading to the insertion of new AMPA receptors.
  • LTP can also involve presynaptic events and the release of neurotransmitter nitric oxide (NO).
  • Late phase LTP requires new protein synthesis and can involve morphological changes and the establishment of new synapses.
  • Long-term depression (LTD) is the opposite of LTP and involves a decrease in synaptic strength.
  • NMDA receptor activity in the hippocampus is essential for both LTP and spatial learning, as blocking it with AP5 blocks both processes.

Quiz: Understanding the Molecular Mechanisms of Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) Test your knowledge on the molecular switches involved in maintaining increased excitability of neurons after a depolarizing stimulus. Explore the presynaptic events and the role of retrograde neurotransmitter, Nitric Oxide (NO), in the process of Long-Term Potentiation (LTP). Discover the intricate relationship between calcium influx, NMDA channels, and Nitric oxide synthase.

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