9.1.1. Dual system theory of reasoning and judgment

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Which system of thinking is quick, automatic, and relies on associations?

What is the immediate judgment of most people when asked how much the ball costs?

Why is the judgment that the ball costs 10 cents incorrect?

What is the correct cost of the ball according to the text?

What does the text say about expert performance in any field?

What are the weaknesses of System 1 thinking according to the text?

What are the strengths of System 2 reasoning according to the text?

What is the primary function of System 2 according to the text?

What is the similarity between critical thinking and System 2 according to the text?

What do researchers believe about Systems 1 and 2 according to the text?

What was the dominant theory of decision making prior to the early 1970’s?

What did researchers in the 1950’s notice about the rational choice theory?

What did the alternative theory propose in the early 1970s?

What does the heuristic theory propose?

What are the two cognitive systems proposed by the most recent versions of heuristic theory?

What is System 1 in the two-process theories?

What is System 2 in the two-process theories?

What do many researchers now use to arrive at solutions?

What does the example in the text demonstrate?

What is the main difference between System 1 and System 2 processes?

What did researchers in the 1950’s notice about the rational choice theory?

What is System 1 in the two-process theories?

What is System 2 in the two-process theories?

What is the primary function of System 2 according to the text?

What do many researchers now use to arrive at solutions?

What do researchers believe about Systems 1 and 2 according to the text?

What is the main difference between System 1 and System 2 processes?

What does the example in the text demonstrate?

What was the dominant theory of decision making prior to the early 1970’s?

What are the two cognitive systems proposed by the most recent versions of heuristic theory?

What is the immediate judgment of most people when asked how much the ball costs?

What is the correct cost of the ball according to the text?

What are the weaknesses of System 1 thinking according to the text?

What do researchers believe about Systems 1 and 2 according to the text?

What is the primary function of System 2 according to the text?

What does the example in the text demonstrate?

What is the similarity between critical thinking and System 2 according to the text?

What is the main difference between System 1 and System 2 processes?

What does the text say about expert performance in any field?

Why is the judgment that the ball costs 10 cents incorrect?

What is the primary weakness of System 1 thinking?

What is one of the similarities between critical thinking and System 2?

What is one of the weaknesses of System 2 reasoning according to the text?

What is one of the functions of the controlled deliberate process (System 2)?

What is one of the strengths of System 1 thinking according to the text?

What is one of the weaknesses of expert performance?

What is one of the functions of System 2 according to the most recent theories?

What is one of the weaknesses of System 1 thinking?

What is one of the weaknesses of System 2 reasoning?

What is one of the functions of the controlled deliberate process (System 2) according to the text?

What was the main reason that researchers in the 1950’s began to question the rational choice theory?

Based on the text, what is the primary difference between the rational-choice model and the heuristic theory?

Which cognitive system is described as quick, automatic, and implicit?

Based on the text, what is the primary function of System 2?

What do many researchers now use to arrive at solutions?

Based on the text, what is the recent theory that proposes the use of two cognitive systems to make judgments?

What is the primary function of System 1 in the two-process theories?

Based on the text, what is the primary function of System 2 in the two-process theories?

What is the recent theory that proposes the use of two cognitive systems to make judgments?

Based on the text, what do many researchers now use to arrive at solutions?

Suppose a bat and a ______ cost $1.10 in total. The bat costs $1 more than the ball. How much does the ball cost?

Most people’s immediate judgment is that the ball costs ______ cents.

The ball can’t cost ______ cents because then the bat would have to be $1, which would make it only 90 cents more than the ball.

The more effortful deliberately controlled reasoning, or System 2, process usually produces a different, and ______, answer.

When people spend the time and effort to think about the problem, they usually realize the ball must cost ______ cents and the bat must cost $1.05.

Hence, in this example, the two systems produce different ______.

Nor does System 1 always produce an ______ answer, nor one that is poorer than one produced by System 2.

Expert performance is not without ______, and studies have shown that even experts make errors in judgment when well-learned associations lead them astray.

The associational processes used in System 1 that make expert performance so quick and powerful are the same processes that are responsible for systematic errors that experts sometimes ______.

System 2 reasoning also has its strengths and ______.

According to the dominant theory of decision making prior to the early 1970’s, people made judgments by calculating (1) the probability and (2) the utility of competing options.

The alternative theory proposed that people use ______ to make judgments, as opposed to the rational weighing of relevant factors.

The recent theory proposes the use of two cognitive systems to make judgments: System 1 and ______.

System 1 is a quick, automatic, implicit process that has been proposed to explain ______.

The text suggests that many judgments are based on ______ or rules of thumb.

The most recent versions of heuristic theory propose that two cognitive systems are used to make judgments: ______ and reasoning.

System 2 is a(n) ______, conscious, and deliberately controlled process.

The text suggests that the rational-choice model failed to predict actual behavior and that evidence accumulated that falsified the ______ theory.

The text suggests that System 1 does not always produce an incorrect answer, nor one that is ______ than one produced by System 2.

The text states that the alternative theory proposed in the early 1970s that people use ______ to make judgments.

Most people’s immediate judgment is that the ball costs ______.

The ball can’t cost ______ cents because then the bat would have to be $1, which would make it only 90 cents more than the ball.

The more effortful deliberately controlled reasoning, or System ______, process usually produces a different, and correct, answer.

When people spend the time and effort to think about the problem, they usually realize the ball must cost ______ cents and the bat must cost $1.05.

Hence, in this example, the two systems produce different ______.

It would be a mistake to conclude that System ______ always produces different judgments than System 2, however.

Nor does System 1 always produce an ______ answer, nor one that is poorer than one produced by System 2.

The associational processes used in System 1 that make expert performance so quick and powerful are the same processes that are responsible for systematic errors that experts sometimes ______.

Additional weaknesses of System 1 are that it depends on the quality and amount of ______ an individual possesses, and it can’t be used effectively in novel situations.

System 2 reasoning also has its strengths and ______.

While it is highly useful in novel situations and problems, it is also ______ and effortful.

According to the dominant theory of decision making prior to the early 1970’s, people made judgments by calculating (1) the probability and (2) the utility of competing options.

In the 1950’s, however, researchers began to notice that the model failed to predict actual behavior.

The “new” theory was, and continues to be, supported by empirical study.

The heuristic theory states that many judgments are based on ______ or rules of thumb.

The most recent versions of heuristic theory propose that ______ are used to make judgments.

The first system, ______, is a quick, automatic, implicit process.

The other system, ______, is effortful, conscious, and deliberately controlled.

Since the 1970’s, multiple and similar two-process theories have referred to the implicit associational type of process as ______, and the conscious deliberate process, as System 2.

The following ______ shows how these two processes may lead to different judgments.

The associational processes used in System 1 that make expert performance so quick and powerful are the same processes that are responsible for systematic errors that experts sometimes ______.

The dominant theory of decision making prior to the early 1970’s stated that people made judgments by calculating (1) the probability and (2) the ______ of competing options.

The heuristic theory states that many judgments are based on ______ or rules of thumb.

The most recent versions of heuristic theory propose that two cognitive systems are used to make judgments: System 1 and ______.

The first system, intuition, is a quick, automatic, implicit process that has been proposed to explain ______.

The other system, reasoning, is ______, conscious, and deliberately controlled.

Since the 1970’s, multiple and similar two-process theories have referred to the implicit associational type of process as System 1, and the conscious deliberate process as ______ 2.

The following example shows how these two processes may lead to ______ judgments.

The associational processes used in System 1 that make expert performance so quick and powerful are the same processes that are responsible for systematic errors that experts sometimes ______.

The primary function of System 1 in the two-process theories is ______.

The two cognitive systems proposed by the most recent versions of heuristic theory are System 1 and ______.

The more effortful deliberately controlled reasoning, or System 2, process usually produces a different, and ______, answer.

System 2 reasoning also has its strengths and weaknesses. While it is highly useful in novel situations and problems, it is also slow and ______.

The similarities between descriptions of critical thinking and System 2 are ______.

Most recent theories, however, believe that Systems 1 and 2 run in parallel and work together, capitalizing on each other’s strengths and ______ for their weaknesses.

For example, many researchers believe that one function of the controlled deliberate process is to ______ the products of the automatic process.

The words “effortful, controlled, deliberate, purposeful, and conscious” are frequently used to describe ______.

The text suggests that many judgments are based on ______ or rules of thumb.

The alternative theory proposed that people use ______ to make judgments, as opposed to the rational weighing of relevant factors.

The recent theory proposes the use of two cognitive systems to make judgments: System 1 and ______.

System 2 is a(n) ______, conscious, and ______ly controlled process.

True or false: The bat and ball together cost $1.10.

True or false: Most people's initial judgment is that the ball costs 10 cents.

True or false: The ball actually costs 10 cents.

True or false: The bat costs $1 more than the ball.

True or false: The bat costs $1.05.

True or false: System 1 is quick, automatic, and relies on associations.

True or false: System 2 is slow and effortful.

True or false: System 1 is always more accurate than System 2.

True or false: System 1 depends on the quality and amount of experience an individual possesses.

True or false: System 2 can be utilized concurrently with other tasks.

True or false: The dominant theory of decision making prior to the early 1970’s stated that people made judgments by calculating the probability and utility of competing options.

True or false: The rational-choice model failed to predict actual behavior according to researchers in the 1950’s.

True or false: The alternative theory proposed in the early 1970s stated that people use heuristics to make judgments instead of weighing relevant factors.

True or false: The heuristic theory proposes that all judgments are made intuitively.

True or false: The most recent versions of heuristic theory propose that there are two cognitive systems used to make judgments.

True or false: The first cognitive system used to make judgments is called intuition.

True or false: The second cognitive system used to make judgments is called reasoning.

True or false: Many researchers now use associational strengths to arrive at solutions.

True or false: System 2 is a quick, automatic, and implicit process.

True or false: System 1 is effortful, conscious, and deliberately controlled.

Description

Quiz: The Evolution of Decision Making Theories Test your knowledge on the evolution of decision making theories. This quiz covers the transition from the dominant rational-choice model to the emergence of new perspectives in the 1950s. Explore how our understanding of decision making has evolved over time and discover key concepts that have shaped contemporary theories.

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