What is prejudice?
What are some personal characteristics that prejudice can be based on?
What is social dominance theory?
What is nationalism?
What is heterosexism?
What is the out-group homogeneity effect?
What is linguicism?
What is the contact hypothesis?
What is institutionalized religion?
Attitudes Based on Preconceived Categories:
- Prejudice is an affective feeling towards a person based on their perceived group membership.
- Prejudice can be based on any personal characteristic, such as race, gender, religion, sexuality, etc.
- Prejudice can stem from categorical thinking and is a natural and normal process for humans.
- There are various contemporary theories and empirical findings related to prejudice, including the out-group homogeneity effect, the justification-suppression model, the realistic conflict theory, and the integrated threat theory.
- Social dominance theory states that society can be viewed as group-based hierarchies, and dominant groups create prejudiced "legitimizing myths" to justify their position over other groups.
- Prejudice can be a central contributing factor to depression, either as a prejudice victim or due to prejudice against oneself.
- Researchers argue that the study of prejudice has been traditionally too narrow, and the scope of prejudice has begun to expand in research.
- Prejudice can be directed towards any characteristic deemed unusual or undesirable, including gender identity, sexism, nationalism, and classism.
- Transgender and non-binary people can be discriminated against due to their gender identity.
- Sexism affects any gender but is documented as affecting women and girls more often.
- Nationalism is a sentiment based on common cultural characteristics that binds a population, and classism is a biased or discriminatory attitude on distinctions made between social or economic classes.
- There are arguments both for and against the existence of social classes as a natural feature of society.Forms of Discrimination: Sexual, Racial, Religious, Linguistic, and Neurological Discrimination
- Homosexuals and bisexuals experience prejudice and stereotypes from the majority group
- Homophobia is a term for intense hatred based on one's sexual orientation
- Heterosexual privilege is a concept that flourishes in society
- Discrimination based on sexual orientation is a powerful feature of many labor markets
- Gay men earn 10-32% less than heterosexual men in the United States
- Racism is the belief that physical characteristics determine cultural traits and that racial characteristics make some groups superior
- Scientific racism began to flourish in the eighteenth century and was greatly influenced by Charles Darwin's evolutionary studies
- Racism and other forms of prejudice can affect a person's behavior, thoughts, and feelings
- Throughout history, there have been wars, pogroms, and other forms of violence motivated by hatred of religious groups
- Researchers have done various studies exploring the relationship between religion and prejudice, thus far receiving mixed results
- Those who practice "institutionalized religion" are more likely to have an increase in prejudice while those who practice "interiorized religion" are most likely to have a decrease in prejudice
- Individuals or groups may be treated unfairly based solely on their use of language
- Linguicism is the ideologies and structures used to "legitimate, effectuate, and reproduce unequal division of power and resources (both material and non-material) between groups which are defined on the basis of language"
- High-functioning individuals who do not conform to neurotypical expectations of behavior may be labeled "disabled"
- Low-functioning individuals may have assumptions made about their intelligence or value
- Institutions such as mental asylums, Nazi concentration camps, and eugenics labs have been used to carry out dangerous experiments or to torture individuals involved
- There is a move by some experts to have higher-functioning extremes reclassified as extensions of human personality
- The contact hypothesis predicts that prejudice can only be reduced when in-group and out-group members are brought together
- Intergroup contact reduces prejudice by enhancing knowledge about the outgroup, reducing anxiety about intergroup contact, and increasing empathy and perspective-taking
- Some individuals confront discrimination when they see it happen
Do you know the different types of discrimination and prejudice that exist in society? Test your knowledge with this quiz that covers attitudes based on preconceived categories, forms of discrimination such as sexual, racial, religious, linguistic, and neurological discrimination, and how to reduce prejudice. Learn about the various theories and empirical findings related to prejudice, the impact of discrimination on individuals and society, and the methods used to combat it. Challenge yourself to become more aware of the biases that exist in our world and become an
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