Teratogens and Genetic Disruptions Quiz

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What is one of the consequences for children born to mothers who use or abuse psychoactive drugs during pregnancy?

Low birth weights and difficulty regulating sleep-wake cycles

What is a potential consequence for children born to fathers who work with toxic chemicals?

Increased risk of prenatal abnormalities

What did previous assumptions link to an increased likelihood of Down syndrome?

Mother's age only

What impact has alcohol use by fathers been linked to in terms of prenatal and birth abnormalities?

Increased likelihood of birth abnormalities

What proportion of Down syndrome cases are attributed to difficulties with the father's sperm?

1/3

What is a potential consequence for children born to fathers who have jobs working with toxic chemicals?

Increased risk of genetic disorders

What are teratogens?

Environmental factors that can negatively affect prenatal development

What is a genetic disruption in prenatal development?

An error or break in the genetic material before the fertilization process

How does maternal age influence prenatal defects?

The incidence of prenatal defects increases with maternal age

What environmental factors can impact prenatal development?

Smoking, drinking, and drug use

Why are older mothers more likely to have children with birth defects?

Older ova might be more likely to be defective due to aging

What is the impact of genetic disruptions before the fertilization process?

Can result in minor issues like birthmarks or major problems like mental retardation

How does maternal malnutrition impact prenatal development?

It leads to an increase in miscarriages, stillbirth, and premature births.

What is a potential effect of maternal calcium deficiencies on prenatal development?

Affecting the development of bones and teeth in the fetus

How can infectious diseases impact prenatal development?

They can cause blindness, deafness, or heart disease in the fetus

What effect does cigarette smoking have on prenatal growth?

It causes retarded prenatal growth

How does alcohol affect unborn children during pregnancy?

It is quickly passed through the placenta from the mother to the fetus

What are potential consequences of a mother contracting Rubella during pregnancy?

Possibility of blindness, deafness, or heart disease in the fetus

During what stage of prenatal development does the human brain begin to develop rapidly, producing more neurons than needed by the fetus?

Embryonic stage

Which part of the brain is most highly developed at birth and is involved in arousal and involuntary body functions like respiration?

Brain stem

What part of the brain thickens during the first 3 months of life after birth, leading to the development of primary motor areas?

Cerebral cortex

Which stage marks the final phase of prenatal brain development, although brain development continues post-birth?

Fetal stage

During which stage of prenatal development does the zygote form into a hollow ball called a blastocyst?

Germinal stage

At what point does the brain undergo its most rapid development according to the text?

During prenatal development

At what point does the embryonic stage of prenatal development typically come to an end?

After eight weeks

Which factor can affect fetal brain development, as mentioned in the text?

Genetic disorders

During which stage of prenatal development do most of the cell divisions and the formation of organs take place?

Embryonic stage

At which week does the fetal stage of prenatal development typically begin?

Week 8

What is the developing child called during the fetal stage of prenatal development?

Fetus

Which stage of prenatal development typically involves the zygote moving down the fallopian tube towards the uterus?

Germinal stage

When does human life begin according to the text?

At fertilization when the sperm cell unites with the egg cell

What happens once the sperm penetrates the egg during fertilization?

The head of the sperm ruptures, spilling genetic material from the father into the egg

What is the term used for the fertilized egg after conception?

Zygote

How many chromosomes are present in a fertilized egg?

46

What determines the genetic sex of the baby?

The chromosomes contributed by the father

Which factor influences human development as indicated in the text?

Genetic predisposition and environmental experiences

What is the term used to describe the stage of prenatal development when the zygote moves down the fallopian tube towards the uterus?

Germinal stage

When does most of the cell divisions and the formation of organs take place during prenatal development?

Embryonic stage

Which stage marks the beginning of human life according to the text?

Germinal stage

What is the term used to describe the developing child during the embryonic stage of prenatal development?

Embryo

Genetic sex in humans is decided by:

The father only

What happens once the sperm penetrates the egg during fertilization?

The sperm head ruptures spilling genetic material.

What is the name given to the developing child from week eight until birth?

Fetus

During which stage of prenatal development does the face, eyes, ears, fingers, and toes become identifiable?

Embryonic stage

What marks the beginning of the embryonic stage of prenatal development?

Implantation of zygote into the uterus wall

Which stage of prenatal development is characterized by rapid cell growth and the formation of a blastocyst?

Germinal stage

At what point does the zygote move towards the uterus?

After implantation in the uterus wall

When does the fetal stage typically begin in terms of weeks after conception?

Week 8

During the fetal stage of prenatal development, which parts of the brain are most highly developed at birth?

Brain stem and midbrain

What is the primary role of the primary sensor and motor areas in brain development during the first 6 months after birth?

Limb and body movement controls

During which stage of prenatal development does the human brain start to develop rapidly, producing more neurons than the fetus needs?

Embryonic stage

What marks the final stage of prenatal brain development, even though brain development continues after birth?

Thickening of the cerebral cortex

Which part of the brain thickens during the first 3 months of life, leading to the development of primary motor areas?

Cerebral cortex

What can impact fetal brain development according to the text?

Both environmental factors and genetic disorders

Test your knowledge on environmental factors and biological factors that can impact prenatal development. Learn about teratogens, genetic disruptions, and their effects on fetal abnormalities and genetic material.

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