Stress and Fetal Development Quiz

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What impact does cortisol have on the developing foetus?

Helps with survival, especially in premature babies

What is the role of glucocorticoid in fetal development?

Maturation of organ systems

How does stress affect the HPA axis and cortisol levels in pregnant women?

Increases cortisol levels

Why is it mentioned that certain levels of stress may be beneficial for development?

To explain how developing adaptive responses to stress can be beneficial

What physiological impact does maternal stress have on infants?

Causes a decrease in birth weight and head circumference

How does cortisol contribute to the trigger for birth?

By increasing the level of glucocorticoids at the end of pregnancy

What effect does excessive cortisol have on postnatal adaptation?

It may be aversive and hinder postnatal adaptation

Why is it important for cortisol levels to be closer to the optimal level in the foetus?

The higher the cortisol level, the higher the learning ability

What impact does stress have on fetal movement and heart rate?

It decreases both fetal movement and heart rate

What is Barker's hypothesis about the origin of certain adult diseases?

They originate in response to maternal stress during fetal life.

What does the programming hypothesis propose in relation to non-genetic factors?

Non-genetic factors permanently alter physiological systems in the developing fetus.

How does cortisol production change during pregnancy according to the text?

Cortisol production increases until free cortisol returns to its original level.

Why does cortisol inhibit the ACTH secretion according to the text?

To prevent immune system overreaction against healthy cells and tissues.

How do opportunities and SES impact fetal development according to the text?

They are more important than what happened in the womb.

What is the role of maternal stress on the structure and function of biological systems?

It can permanently affect the structure and function of biological systems.

What is the significance of cortisol blood levels in pregnant women according to the text?

Pregnant women exhibit increased cortisol blood levels without symptoms of glucocorticoid excess.

What does HPA AXIS stand for in the context of the text?

'Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis'

Cortisol is not involved in the normal development of the foetus.

False

High levels of cortisol in the foetus are always beneficial for optimal development.

False

Stress during pregnancy does not affect infant mortality rates.

False

Moderate levels of stress during pregnancy have no benefits for the developing foetus.

False

Adrenaline and cortisol released due to stress do not impact the developing foetus.

False

Match the following statements about stress and fetal development:

Moderate levels of stress may benefit optimal development = Sensitizes developing nervous system High levels of cortisol in the foetus are not always beneficial for optimal development = Physiological impact of maternal stress Cortisol is necessary for development = Triggers birth: end of pregnancy Stress affects the sympathetic nervous system = Adrenaline & cortisol affects developing foetus

Match the following positive aspects of glucocorticoid in fetal development:

Influence growth in uterus, activity of pancreas = Triggers birth: end of pregnancy Maturation of organ system = Cortisol helps with survival Certain levels of stress may be beneficial = Accelerate lung maturation, decreases respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants Cortisol is part of normal development = Develop adaptive response to stress

Match the following impacts of stress on maternal health and infant outcomes:

↑ infant mortality and preterm births = Especially common in women under high levels of stress ↓ birth weight and head circumference = Decreased foetal movement & heart rate HPA axis response = Physiological impact of maternal stress Certain levels of stress may be beneficial for development = Accelerate lung maturation, decreases respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants

Match the following consequences of cortisol levels during pregnancy:

Too high levels or too chronic = aversive = Physiological impact of maternal stress Trigger of mechanism that leads to birth = Influence growth in uterus, activity of pancreas Maturation of organ system = Especially premature babies Certain levels of stress may be beneficial for optimal development = Develop adaptive response to stress

Match the following impacts of adrenaline and cortisol on fetal development:

Adrenaline & cortisol affects developing foetus = Positive Aspects GLUCOCORTICOID IN FETAL DEVELOPMENT Cortisol is necessary for development = Postnatal survival & postnatal adaptation Trigger of mechanism that leads to birth = Endocrine effects on placenta and foetus Stress releases adrenaline = Especially common in women under high levels of stress

Test your knowledge on how stress during fetal development can have lifelong implications on adult health. Explore concepts like Barker's hypothesis and the programming hypothesis, which suggest a link between fetal stress and diseases like coronary heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, stroke, and hypertension.

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