Zusammenfassung Organizational Behavior

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Social psychology focuses on the influence of the social context on human thoughts, feelings, and actions.

Allport (1953) defined social psychology as the scientific study of how human thoughts, feelings, and actions are influenced by the presence of other humans.

Social psychology primarily relies on observational studies to test hypotheses.

The fundamental attribution error refers to the tendency to attribute one's own behavior to external causes and others' behavior to inherent personality traits.

According to the fundamental attribution error, individuals are more likely to attribute their own behavior to external forces.

According to the fundamental attribution error, individuals are more likely to attribute others' behavior to external forces.

The actor-observer bias refers to the tendency to interpret causes of behavior differently based on whether one is the actor or the observer.

Own behavior is typically attributed to inherent personality traits, according to the actor-observer bias.

Others' behavior is typically attributed to external forces, according to the actor-observer bias.

The text suggests that the social situation plays a significant role in driving behavior, while personality is de-emphasized.

Groupthink can be prevented by establishing standards of control, oversight, and challenging group decisions.

Pluralistic ignorance may explain the bystander effect and occurs when a majority privately rejects a norm but goes along with it assuming others accept it.

Breaching is the purposeful breaking of social norms used to study how norms and conformity are upheld in a society.

Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment showed how people quickly enact their roles and experience dissonance when not enacting the role.

Social identity theory offers insights into group processes and intergroup conflict, explaining group identification processes and the consequences of group identification.

The minimal group paradigm and information cascade game illustrate the impact of heterogeneity on group decision-making and conformity.

Peer effects can impact productivity, with individuals tending to have high problems with procrastination and groups potentially helping to overcome this.

Pairing with a productive partner may yield negative effects due to free-riding.

Teams decide with higher strategic sophistication and potentially inhibit welfare maximization in beauty contests between individuals and teams.

People have a natural tendency to categorize when they see contrast, which is necessary for group formation.

True or false: The self-concept only involves the content of our self, not the process of self-attention.

True or false: Cultural differences do not impact the perception of the self.

True or false: According to the theory of cognitive dissonance, people seek psychological inconsistency between their expectations and the reality of the world.

True or false: People reduce cognitive dissonance by changing behavior or cognition, justifying their actions, adding new cognitions, or ignoring conflicting information.

True or false: Sherif and Asch studied group processes and found that individuals establish personal standards, which are unaffected by group influence.

True or false: Normative influence and informational influence are two forms of conformity, where normative influence involves using others' behavior as evidence about reality.

True or false: Factors affecting normative influence include group size, unanimity, cohesion, and individual identification with the group.

True or false: Factors affecting informational influence include perceived intelligence or competence of others, number of others, unanimity, and one's own certainty.

True or false: Groupthink is a phenomenon where groups fail to aggregate their views properly and was identified as a cause of the Challenger Disaster.

Leader development focuses on developing individual leader attributes, while leadership development concentrates on the leader-follower relationship and developing an environment for cooperation and resource exchange.

Formal leadership involves influencing others to pursue official organizational objectives, while informal leadership involves influencing others to pursue unofficial objectives.

The dispositional theories of leadership suggest that certain traits are essential for great leadership.

The power approach to leadership examines the different types of powers wielded by leaders, including reward power, coercive power, legitimate power, referent power, and expert power.

The motivation to lead can be based on affective identity, instrumental motives, and social-normative motives.

Transformational leadership theory focuses on inspiring and transforming followers by appealing to nobler motives, while transactional leadership theory focuses on showing followers how to meet personal goals through certain behaviors.

Leaders help build and maintain consensus about objectives and priorities, increase the efficacy of the organization, and foster trust, respect, and cooperation.

The dynamics of team effectiveness include psychological safety, dependability, structure and clarity, meaning, and impact.

Behavioral theories of leadership suggest that great leadership is based on what a leader does.

The motivation to lead can be based on instrumental motives, which indicate an interest in leading if it leads to personal benefits.

The power approach to leadership examines the different types of powers wielded by leaders, including reward power, coercive power, legitimate power, referent power, and expert power.

The motivation to lead can be based on social-normative motives, which involve feeling a sense of duty and standing up for a challenge.

Leaders are more concerned with innovating and inspiring, while managers focus on administering and controlling. True or false?

Tyrannical leaders accept the goals of the organization but humiliate subordinates. True or false?

Leader emergence focuses on the characteristics of individuals who become leaders, while leadership effectiveness studies the behaviors of designated leaders. True or false?

Episodic leadership requires individuals to always exhibit leadership behaviors. True or false?

Derailed leaders behave abusively and engage in behavior directed against the organization. True or false?

Managers are more likely to challenge the status quo and do the right thing. True or false?

Supportive-disloyal leaders are nice to employees but encourage disloyal behavior against the organization. True or false?

Leader emergence studies the basis on which individuals become leaders. True or false?

Negative leadership outcomes only include tyrannical and derailed behaviors. True or false?

Leadership effectiveness examines the characteristics of individuals who become leaders. True or false?

Managers focus on long-term views and inspiring others. True or false?

Leader emergence is the study of which behaviors on the part of a designated leader led to an outcome valued by the work group or organization. True or false?

Stress can have both positive and negative effects on individuals. True or false?

Long-term stress can lead to the development of mental and physical abilities. True or false?

According to the WHO Global Burden of Disease Report, there has been a 46% decrease in health care cost for people reporting high stress levels. True or false?

Short-term stress consequences are reversible through recovery. True or false?

Long-term stress only has negative effects on individuals. True or false?

Stress is relevant in the economic dimension. True or false?

The number of IV-Retirees in CH has decreased by 60% from 2000 to 2016. True or false?

Stress can lead to an increase in 'sick days' in response to mental illness. True or false?

Exercise is a positive consequence of long-term stress. True or false?

Stress has no impact on the economic dimension. True or false?

Mindfulnes-based stress reduction is the ultimate solution to the social problem in general.

Stress interventions should only focus on changing the individual, not the environment.

Douglas and Walter responded differently to being laid off, with Douglas attributing the situation to external factors.

Martin Seligman is best known for his work in positive psychology and has assisted in designing a resilience program for the army.

The Army's 'Teaching Resilience Program' aims to reduce the number of people suffering from PTSD and increase the number of people experiencing post-traumatic growth.

Stress is a physical reaction triggered by threats to an organism's homeostasis, leading to specific physiological responses.

Social support has been found to mitigate stress and individual responses to stressful events may depend on individual differences in anxiety.

Stress 'management' approaches include mindfulness-based stress reduction, resilience training, and cognitive reappraisals of stressful situations.

The text suggests that stressors in the workplace are often social in nature and may lead to chronic stress with adverse effects.

The Army's 'Teaching Resilience Program' includes self-improvement courses and master-resilience training for drill sergeants.

Stress can only lead to physical health issues, not behavioral issues. True or false?

Hans Selye is known as the founding father of stress research. True or false?

The Trier Social Stress Test is a laboratory procedure designed to reduce stress in research participants. True or false?

Chronic stress can lead to adverse health outcomes. True or false?

Biomarkers of stress include increases in salivary and blood serum cortisol, corticotropin, adrenaline, and heart rate. True or false?

Social stressors in the workplace involve conflicts with colleagues, lack of fairness, social isolation, and dealing with difficult clients. True or false?

Recent models of stress research focus on inequity, social recognition crises, illegitimate tasks, and threats to the self by failure. True or false?

Acute social stress has been shown to trigger prosocial behavior, serving as a potent stress-buffering strategy in humans. True or false?

Understanding stress is not relative and does not depend on socially shared meanings and specific social groups' resilience. True or false?

Classical stressors in the workplace include time pressure, workload, role overload, uncertainty, and regulatory barriers. True or false?

According to the relative deprivation theory, individuals compare their standing with a relevant peer group when making justice judgments?

The equity principle, as per Adams (1965), states that humans evaluate distributions as fair based on the congruence between inputs and outputs?

Kate helped her mother bake 6 cookies, and when the mother gave all the cookies to Kate, Michael called his mother unfair. This scenario illustrates the equity principle?

According to the equity theory, negative deviations from the equity principle lead to guilt?

The equity theory suggests that humans compare their input/output quotient with others and are motivated to reduce tension caused by deviations from equity?

Most conflicts in organizations can be explained by someone feeling treated unfairly?

The relative deprivation theory argues that individuals who are factually equally off may feel different degrees of deprivation relative to their comparison standard?

The equity theory, as per Adams (1965), states that positive deviations from the equity principle lead to anger?

In the scenario with Michael, Kate, and their mother, the distribution of cookies aligns with the equity principle, as Kate contributed more by helping her mother bake the cookies?

Fairness concerns are ubiquitous in organizations and can lead to conflicts?

Procedural justice involves consistency, impartiality, accuracy, correctability, representativeness, and ethicality. True or false?

According to Tyler (2000), one of the four conditions of procedural justice is the opportunity for affected parties to be heard. True or false?

Informational justice refers to the quality and quantity of information received by affected parties from decision makers. True or false?

Social identity theory suggests that people care about justice because it influences their status within a social group. True or false?

The text mentions that sabotage may occur as a negative consequence of injustice. True or false?

Justice as uncertainty avoidance is a concept mentioned in the text. True or false?

The text states that applying rules of distributional and procedural justice can help maximize joint utility. True or false?

The text suggests that researchers unanimously agree that justice is an 'ultimate' motive for people. True or false?

Procedural justice does not involve compromising on the criteria for conflict resolution. True or false?

Leventhal's six rules of procedural justice include accuracy, representativeness, and ethicality. True or false?

According to equity theory, underprivileged individuals react with reduced effort, while overprivileged individuals react with increased effort. True or false?

Positive reciprocity in gift exchange is theoretically supported by equity theory. True or false?

The equality principle in achieving justice dictates that every affected person receives an equal share. True or false?

The choice of the justice principle depends on the nature of the relationship between the involved parties, with equity dominating in economic relationships and equality in social ones. True or false?

Procedural justice is about how decisions are made and is increasingly used to explain fair procedures in the workplace. True or false?

Illustrative scenarios showcase the challenges of maintaining fairness in the application of justice principles. True or false?

Debates about elements of the welfare state typically center around conflicts about which distributional justice rule to follow. True or false?

Overconfidence, representativeness, and partitioning of tasks are reasons underlying wrong perceptions about justice in relationships. True or false?

Conflict resolution often involves compromises that mix several criteria of distributional justice, such as equity, equality, and need. True or false?

The need principle in achieving justice states that every affected person receives as much as they need. True or false?

Social psychology is primarily concerned with the study of individual behavior in isolation.

Social psychologists conduct experiments in both laboratory and field settings to test their hypotheses.

The fundamental attribution error refers to the tendency to attribute one's own behavior to external causes and others' behavior to inherent personality traits.

Social identity theory suggests that people care about justice because it influences their status within a social group.

Procedural justice involves consistency, impartiality, accuracy, correctability, representativeness, and ethicality.

The equity theory suggests that humans compare their input/output quotient with others and are motivated to reduce tension caused by deviations from equity.

The actor-observer bias leads individuals to interpret causes of behavior differently depending on whether they themselves are the actor or the observer.

Mindfulness-based stress reduction is the ultimate solution to the social problem in general.

Stress can have both positive and negative effects on individuals.

Supportive-disloyal leaders are nice to employees but encourage disloyal behavior against the organization.

Conflicting motives of accuracy and positive self-image lead to self-serving bias in social cognition.

Cultural differences influence how individuals perceive the self, with varying levels of interconnectedness with others.

Sherif's and Asch's conformity studies highlight the impact of group influence on individual behavior, with both normative and informational influences at play.

Cognitive dissonance theory explains the stress caused by conflicting beliefs and the methods people use to reduce this dissonance.

The Challenger Disaster involved the explosion of the NASA spacecraft, and groupthink was identified as a key factor in the disaster.

Groupthink can lead to flawed decision-making within groups, as seen in the case of the Challenger Disaster.

The self-concept involves the content of our self and our knowledge of who we are, while self-attention is the process of thinking about ourselves.

Group processes such as conformity are influenced by factors like group size, unanimity, cohesion, and individual identification with the group.

Normative influence involves conformity for social approval, while informational influence involves using others' behavior as evidence about reality.

Groupthink, a phenomenon where groups fail to properly aggregate views, was implicated in the Challenger Disaster at NASA.

Groupthink antecedents include insulation from external forces, leadership dynamics, homogenous group membership, and time pressure leading to premature agreements.

Pluralistic ignorance is a situation where a majority privately accept a norm but go along with it, explaining the bystander effect.

Breaching is the purposeful breaking of social norms used to study how norms and conformity are upheld in society.

Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment showcased how people quickly enacted their roles, illustrating the impact of situational factors on behavior.

The minimal group paradigm and information cascade game illustrate how homogenous groups are less likely to conform.

Peer effects impact productivity, with pairing with a high-productivity peer decreasing productivity, as shown in a study by Mas & Moretti.

The 'Linda Problem' and the centipede game show how groups may inhibit welfare maximization and lead to earlier decisions.

Strategic sophistication in team decision-making is lower, as shown in the beauty contest example.

Social identity theory offers insights into group processes and intergroup conflict, explaining group identification processes and consequences.

Group-level payments and beauty contests between individuals and teams capture the individualistic nature of decision-making.

Classical conditioning refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus is paired with a previously neutral stimulus, leading to a specific behavioral response. True or false?

Classical conditioning was an intentional finding by Pavlov in his studies of the dog's digestive system. True or false?

Classical conditioning, along with operand conditioning, forms the basis of behavioristic learning theories. True or false?

Rationalism suggests that knowledge comes from humans 'inside' while empiricism suggests that knowledge comes from empiric studies from outside. True or false?

Raffael’s 'School of Athens' is mentioned in the text as a reference to learning theories. True or false?

People learn only through either rationalism or empiricism, not both. True or false?

The concept of blank slates or innate capabilities is discussed in the text in relation to learning theories. True or false?

Classical conditioning refers to the pairing of a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned response. True or false?

Pavlov's dog studies, published in 1897, are associated with which type of learning theory? True or false?

Learning through classical conditioning involves the co-occurrence of a biologically potent stimulus and a previously neutral stimulus. True or false?

Albert Bandura's social learning theory emphasized purely behavioral learning without any cognitive processes involved.

B.F. Skinner's work focused on classical conditioning rather than operant conditioning.

Edward L. Thorndike's law of effect emphasized the after-effects strengthening actions but did not consider pleasure as a factor.

Bandura's Bobo-doll studies illustrated the influence of observational learning on aggressive behavior.

Noam Chomsky's criticism of Skinner's book 'Verbal Behavior' contributed to psychology's cognitive revolution.

Julian B. Rotter's focus on the interaction between the individual and the environment paved the way for cognitive theories of learning.

The historical development of social learning theory involved a shift from purely behaviorist theories to a more holistic approach.

Social learning theory emphasized the reciprocal determinism between cognition, environment, and behavior.

Bandura's theory proposed that learning is purely a behavioral process and does not take place in a social context.

Classical conditioning involves involuntary responses to stimuli, such as salivation, eye blinking, and fear responses.

Behavioristic learning theories neglect psychological mechanisms and focus on pragmatic functionality. True or false?

Modern learning theories suggest that babies are born with innate capabilities and possess advanced statistical knowledge at a young age. True or false?

Theory theory proposes that babies learn causal knowledge by forming hypotheses and using experimental and statistical expertise. True or false?

Evidence-based practices are widely adopted in medicine and management due to reliance on old knowledge and biased beliefs. True or false?

Management experts often base their advice on sources like Shakespeare or Santa Claus, but organizations are more diverse than humans. True or false?

There is a challenge in gathering causal knowledge for managers and using the best available evidence as a competitive advantage. True or false?

Seasoned practitioners in management often rely on their experience, leading to an excessive reliance on dogma and beliefs, affecting decision-making. True or false?

Supportive-disloyal leaders are nice to employees but encourage disloyal behavior against the organization. True or false?

The motivation to lead can be based on social-normative motives, which involve feeling a sense of duty and standing up for a challenge. True or false?

Stress can have both positive and negative effects on individuals. True or false?

Descriptive statements show how people actually judge and behave and can be right or wrong in relation to empirical observations.

Prescriptive statements describe how people should act, assuming certain goals or values.

The organization as an Information Processing Entity deals with perception, judgment, decision making at individual and group levels.

Descriptive theories focus on how people actually judge and decide in reality.

Normative statements are subjective value statements which cannot be checked for correctness.

Rational versus irrational use of information is a consideration in how organizations deal with information.

Time horizon and learning are factors in how organizations deal with information.

The Nobel Prize in Economic Science was awarded to Daniel Kahneman in 2002 for integrating insights from psychological research into economic science.

In the mental accounting example, a person is more likely to buy a new ticket to a concert when they have lost the ticket they bought in advance compared to when they noticed they lost money on the way.

The endowment effect, as described by R. Thaler, illustrates how people place higher value on items they own than on identical items they do not own.

The combination of overweighting small probabilities and concave/convex value function results in risk-averse behavior in certain situations.

The status-quo bias, loss aversion, and availability/salience are all influences on decision making and strategy mentioned in the text.

The Challenger Disaster at NASA was attributed to groupthink, a phenomenon where groups fail to properly aggregate views.

Procedural justice involves how decisions are made and is used to explain fair procedures in the workplace.

Evidence-based procedures and learning are linked to expert knowledge, making expert knowledge less likely to be biased.

The fundamental attribution error refers to the tendency to attribute one's own behavior to inherent personality traits and others' behavior to external causes.

The Tyranny of choice refers to the idea that having more choices can motivate decision-making. True or false?

The Peak-End Rule influences memories of experiences and can affect decision-making. True or false?

Neither remembered utility nor expected utility accurately reflect experienced utility. True or false?

Availability heuristics influence risk assessments and perception of alternatives. True or false?

Spectacular causes are overestimated, while everyday causes are also overestimated. True or false?

The number of choices has been shown to positively correlate with the number of purchases in a jam selection experiment. True or false?

The text suggests that self-knowledge and understanding preferences are not crucial for making good decisions. True or false?

Tversky & Kahneman's study showed that the first group of people given more possibilities for car problems had a smaller set of potential reasons than the second group.

Salience refers to the inconspicuousness and dullness of information.

Prospect Theory explains how people perceive gains and losses, with gains looming larger than losses.

The value function in Prospect Theory is convex for gains and concave for losses.

Decision weight function in decision-making directly includes probabilities, impacting how people evaluate certain outcomes versus uncertain ones.

Framing of decisions does not manipulate the reference point, influencing choices in different presentations of the same information.

Anchoring effects in decision-making occur when initial information forms a reference point, leading to sufficient subsequent adjustments.

Trust is a well-investigated topic in management research. True or false?

Trusting people is not a good idea as it makes individuals vulnerable to exploitation. True or false?

According to Rosseau et al. (1998), trust involves making oneself vulnerable to exploitation with no prospect of receiving any benefit. True or false?

The concept of trust is closely related to the concept of cooperation. True or false?

According to the text, trust can be defined as making oneself vulnerable to another person's exploitation with the prospect of benefiting from the trust given to them. True or false?

The text suggests that not trusting people comes with no cost. True or false?

True or false: In the Die-under-the-cup experiment, participants were told to report their first number and then continue rolling to verify that the die is fair.

True or false: According to the experiment with bankers, bankers lie more when they are reminded that they are bankers.

True or false: The classical economic analysis views crime as a mere instrumental and financial problem, not a moral or cultural one.

True or false: The experiment found that participants coming from a culture where cooperation pays off behaved differently compared to those coming from a culture where cooperation does not pay.

True or false: Honesty in classical economic theory is based on rational crime, involving a cost and benefit analysis of lying.

True or false: In the Die-under-the-cup experiment, participants were offered different monetary rewards based on the outcome of rolling a die.

Rational behavior favors 'no trust' and 'no reciprocity,' while irrational behavior can yield higher payoff in the trust game.

Empirical results are at odds with what rational concepts would suggest, as trust behavior versus risk behavior is not well explained by risk-behavior.

There is an informational asymmetry in feedback depending on trusting and not-trusting, leading to underestimation of trustworthiness, regardless of financial incentives.

Unconditional feedback decreases people’s cynicism, while low-trust environments do not allow people to learn if others can be trusted.

An alternative explanation of trust in the trust game is people’s potential concern for the common good, as efficiency concerns may underlie decisions to trust.

The trust game shows a larger trust rate than the betting rate in an extended coin flip, indicating potential concern for the common good.

The ultimatum game measures second-party punishment and pro-sociality based on how offers are accepted or rejected.

The gift-exchange game measures trust and reciprocity through positive wages and effort levels.

Trust correlates with financial honesty, economic growth, and corruption, leading to positive outcomes.

The workplace often involves interactions with strangers, making trust more challenging to establish.

The dictator game measures pro-sociality by observing how much one player gives to another.

Trust can be deterrence-based (consistency of behavior), knowledge-based (behavioral predictability), or identification-based (empathy).

Trust in the trust game is solely driven by efficiency concerns.

Immediate emotions, rather than anticipated emotions, predict trust behavior.

The relationship status of interaction partners does not significantly impact trust behavior in situations where individuals are pessimistic about receiving money back.

Excessive control measures in companies have consistent positive effects on business performance.

Lack of trust cannot harm the integrity of individuals.

As societies grow, cooperation becomes easier to maintain.

Cooperation 3 Split or Steal is a game where opponents have to decide whether to split the money or try to take everything for themselves. If both choose to steal, they both get zero.

In the game Cooperation 3 Split or Steal, young men below 30 are the most uncooperative, while older men over 30 are more cooperative.

Young people are less cooperative in the game Cooperation 3 Split or Steal because they are less fortunate and need the money more.

Anonymity and not knowing who the opponent is are factors that could make people more selfish in the game Cooperation 3 Split or Steal.

In the context of the game Cooperation 3 Split or Steal, the conditions favor a division of labor when different individuals can perform different tasks to maximize the total payoff.

In the game Cooperation 3 Split or Steal, investment into two activities, A and B, must be traded off against each other because time and energy spent on A cannot be spent on B.

The game Cooperation 3 Split or Steal illustrates the problem of favoring a division of labor when different individuals can perform different tasks to maximize the total payoff.

In the game Cooperation 3 Split or Steal, striking parallels can be drawn between biological and organizational writings in terms of the tasks necessary for survival.

In the game Cooperation 3 Split or Steal, supportive-disloyal leaders are nice to employees but encourage disloyal behavior against the organization.

The game Cooperation 3 Split or Steal involves a 14 thousand dollar win that the opponents have to decide how to split.

Cooperation is essential for the evolution of new levels of organization.

Kin selection alone can explain how cooperation is sustained in societies primarily living among non-relatives.

The text presents various mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation and their application in creating a cooperative work environment.

Division of labor is favored when the relationship between resource allocation and return is decelerating.

Hunter-gatherer societies show extensive cooperation among members, with band-wide food sharing and allomaternal child-care.

Evidence of cooperation among kin is found only in mammals.

Life is not a one-shot game, and repeated prisoner's dilemma situations occur.

Mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation include direct and indirect reciprocity, spatial selection, and group selection.

Putting an organization into work is not similar to an organism, with specialized division of labor.

Evolution of behavior is not studied in biology, psychology, economics, sociology, and mathematics.

Tit-for-tat strategy is considered unstable and fragile in case of errors.

Generous tit-for-tat introduces forgiveness and a probability of cooperation even after the opponent defects.

Group selection theory suggests that a group of cooperators may not be more successful than a group of defectors.

Cooperation could have evolved through kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, spatial selection (Network reciprocity), and group selection, but it's an altruistic act.

Creating stability in the social network is not considered a way to make an organization more cooperative.

Implementing sanctioning and reward systems is not a way to promote cooperation in an organization.

Direct reciprocity and indirect reciprocity do not allow the evolution of cooperation based on repeated interactions and reputation.

There are only 5 ways to make an organization more cooperative.

Anatol Rapoport's Tit-for-tat did not emerge as the winner in Robert Axelrod's prisoner’s dilemma tournament in the 1980s.

The Folk Theorem suggests that cooperation may not be an equilibrium strategy if there is a shadow of the future and humans care about future payoffs.

Elton Mayo conducted experiments in the Hawthorne plants of the Western Electric Company.

The Hawthorne experiments showed that changes in lighting and work breaks consistently led to higher productivity.

The Hawthorne studies established that operational productivity is influenced by both human nature and machines.

The Human Relations Movement emphasized the importance of the individual in organizational research.

The Hawthorne studies led to a paradigm shift in organizational research, giving greater importance to the individual.

The fundamental assumption of (work) motivation research is that humans are biological beings who have an 'inner life'​.

The Hawthorne studies put the issue of work motivation on the organizational research agenda.

Theories of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination primarily focus on external motivators and their impact on behavior.

According to Deci's approach, extrinsic motivators can enhance motivation.

Flow, as described by Csikszentmihalyi, involves shallow involvement and accurate time perception.

An autotelic person is characterized by setting self-determined and realistic goals.

Volition is the psychological term for the ability to achieve goals.

Mental contrasting is not considered central to achieving goals.

According to the Strength Model of Self-Control, self-control is an unlimited reservoir of energy.

The Theory of Fantasy Realization does not include strategies for goal commitment.

Goals are cognitive representations of desired states, differing from desires in commitment.

Motivation and emotion are constructs that are difficult to separate

Abraham Maslow introduced the term 'positive psychology'

Clark L. Hull's drive theory explained behavior as the interplay of needs and environmental states

Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic motivation theory focused on drive reduction and the desire for pleasure

Early models of motivation were influenced by historical assumptions about human action

Motivation is the entity of all motives leading to willingness to act and human striving for goals

Humanistic psychology strongly criticized drive and reinforcement theories

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs only distinguishes between "deficit needs" and "growth motives."

McClelland's Theory of Achievement Motives had no significant impact on organizational and HR research.

Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory focused on work motivation based solely on hygiene factors.

Intrinsic motivation requires external rewards.

Decis's cognitive evaluation theory suggests that people are not motivated to seek challenges and develop themselves.

Evidence for intrinsic motivation was obtained from animal experiments, such as Capuchin monkeys voluntarily working on puzzles without pay.

McClelland's work on the achievement motive was not influential in personnel research and practice.

Taylorism is based on the principle of the unity of management and the unity of the assignment of tasks (single line system)

Scientific Management, or Taylorism, emphasizes the separation of manual and mental work with precise planning

Mechanistic organization does not do justice to the calibrated need structure of humans

The Human Relations Movement emphasized the importance of the individual in organizational research

The term 'Taylorism' has a rather positive connotation due to its focus on the social dimension of work

Taylorism includes the function master system, which involves the division of master tasks into different function masters for work preparation, execution, and supervision

Scientific Management, or Taylorism, prioritizes flexibility and innovation in organizational tasks

The mechanistic view of organization underestimates the complexity of organizational tasks

Scientific Management, or Taylorism, allows for a high level of flexibility in carrying out work tasks

Mechanistic organization provides safety from arbitrary behavior but lacks focus on innovation

Organizations reduce risk by centralizing goods and services. True or false?

Efficiency is not a consideration for having organizations. True or false?

Division of labor does not contribute to efficiency in an organization. True or false?

Exchange and coordination are not important consequences of division of labor. True or false?

Within an organization, employees from different departments do not need to exchange ideas and information. True or false?

Between organizations, there is no need for exchange and coordination. True or false?

The main reason for having organizations historically was to increase risk. True or false?

Organizations do not allow for the production of more goods and services. True or false?

Specialization does not lead to advantages in an organization. True or false?

The possibility to buy just part of a firm does not reduce risks. True or false?

Classical management theory by Fayol focused on coordinating the entire company and structuring management activities into core tasks like planning and organization.

The industrial revolution led to an increase in operational organizations, with the machine metaphor central to economic theories like Adam Smith's.

Bureaucracy theory by Max Weber focused on systematically describing and understanding state administrative structures, emphasizing the efficiency of rules over case-by-case analysis.

Weber's bureaucracy theory suggests that organizations are command and obedience associations, with belief in the legitimacy of rules leading to obedience.

The organization as an instrument for achieving goals has its origin in the Greek word 'Organon,' meaning tool or instrument.

Mechanistic ideas influenced behavioristic psychology and economics, with behaviorism revisiting human ideas as predictable machines.

Classical thoughts about the organization featured the machine prominently in metaphors, influencing the way people think and communicate.

Organization has instrumental and institutional meanings, with an institutional view seeing it as a social construct involving individuals with common interests.

Exchange and coordination require time, effort, and money, with parts of the gains of division of labor lost in the process due to transaction costs.

Mechanistic thinking has shaped organizational and management theories, influencing the way organizations are structured and managed.

Summary

Social Psychology: The Self, Cognitive Dissonance, and Group Processes

  • The self-concept involves the content of our self and the process of self-attention.
  • Cultural differences impact the perception of the self, with individuals from Mexico seeing others as part of themselves, while people from the USA and Sweden see themselves as more independent.
  • The theory of cognitive dissonance, proposed by Leon Festinger, explains how people seek psychological consistency between their expectations and the reality of the world.
  • People reduce cognitive dissonance by changing behavior or cognition, justifying their actions, adding new cognitions, or ignoring conflicting information.
  • Group processes, such as conformity, were studied by Sherif and Asch, revealing that individuals establish personal standards, but in uncertain situations, group influence is high.
  • Normative influence and informational influence are two forms of conformity, where normative influence involves seeking social approval, while informational influence involves using others' behavior as evidence about reality.
  • Factors affecting normative influence include group size, unanimity, cohesion, and individual identification with the group, while factors affecting informational influence include perceived intelligence or competence of others, number of others, unanimity, and one's own uncertainty.
  • Groupthink is a phenomenon where groups fail to aggregate their views properly, as seen in the Challenger Disaster, where groupthink was identified as a cause of the disaster.

Understanding Stress and Its Impact on Health and Behavior

  • Stress can lead to various health issues such as back pain, headaches, and heart problems, as well as exhaustion, absenteeism, and early retirement.
  • Classical stressors in the workplace include time pressure, workload, role overload, uncertainty, and regulatory barriers.
  • Social stressors in the workplace involve conflicts with colleagues, lack of fairness, social isolation, and dealing with difficult clients.
  • Stress is relative and depends on socially shared meanings and specific social groups' resilience.
  • Recent models of stress research focus on inequity, social recognition crises, illegitimate tasks, and threats to the self by failure.
  • Reactions to stress involve physical arousal, cognition, emotion, and behavior, as per the transactional stress model.
  • Hans Selye, the founding father of stress research, emphasized the external world's impact on stress and the concept of homeostasis.
  • Biomarkers of stress include increases in salivary and blood serum cortisol, corticotropin, adrenaline, and heart rate.
  • Chronic stress, caused by modern stressors like exams, public speaking, and traffic, can lead to adverse health outcomes.
  • Workplace stressors, as demonstrated in studies like the Baboon and Whitehall studies, can be influenced by factors such as autonomy and control.
  • The Trier Social Stress Test is a laboratory procedure designed to induce stress in research participants and is frequently used in stress studies.
  • Acute social stress has been shown to trigger prosocial behavior, serving as a potent stress-buffering strategy in humans.

Gift Exchange and Justice Principles in Social Relationships

  • Equity theory suggests that underprivileged individuals react with reduced effort, while overprivileged individuals react with increased effort.
  • Positive reciprocity in gift exchange is theoretically supported by equity theory, where high-wage earners respond to equity-rule violations with increased effort to reduce guilt-inducing tension.
  • The equality principle in achieving justice dictates that every affected person receives an equal share.
  • The need principle in achieving justice states that every affected person receives as much as they need.
  • The choice of the justice principle depends on the nature of the relationship between the involved parties, with equity dominating in economic relationships and equality in social ones.
  • Perception about the nature of the relationship leads to conflicts about the appropriate justice principle.
  • Conflict resolution often involves compromises that mix several criteria of distributional justice, such as equity, equality, and need.
  • Procedural justice, which is about how decisions are made, is increasingly used to explain fair procedures in the workplace.
  • Illustrative scenarios showcase the challenges of maintaining fairness in the application of justice principles.
  • Overconfidence, representativeness, and partitioning of tasks are reasons underlying wrong perceptions about justice in relationships.
  • Debates about elements of the welfare state typically center around conflicts about which distributional justice rule to follow.
  • The incongruent perception about the nature of the relationship is an important source of justice conflicts.

Group Processes and Social Identity

  • Groupthink antecedents include cohesion, insulation from external forces, leadership dynamics, homogenous group membership, poor information handling, stress, and time pressure leading to premature agreements.
  • Preventing groupthink involves establishing standards of control, oversight, challenging group decisions, appointing a devil's advocate, encouraging voice, making committee voting anonymous.
  • Pluralistic ignorance is a situation where a majority privately reject a norm but go along with it, explaining the bystander effect.
  • Breaching is the purposeful breaking of social norms used to study how norms and conformity are upheld in society.
  • Roles impact behavior, with Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Experiment showcasing how people quickly enact their roles.
  • Identity includes personal, role, and social identities, influencing behavior and causing role conflicts.
  • Social identity theory offers insights into group processes and intergroup conflict, explaining group identification processes and consequences.
  • The minimal group paradigm and information cascade game illustrate how homogenous groups are more likely to conform.
  • Peer effects impact productivity, with pairing with a high-productivity peer increasing productivity, as shown in a study by Mas & Moretti.
  • Group-level payments and beauty contests between individuals and teams capture the strategic nature of decision-making.
  • The "Linda Problem" and the centipede game show how groups may inhibit welfare maximization and lead to earlier decisions.
  • Strategic sophistication in team decision-making is higher, as shown in the beauty contest example.

Critiques of Behavioristic Learning Theories and Modern Learning Theories

  • Behavioristic learning theories are still influential and utilized in various fields such as behavioral therapy and economics.
  • These theories ignore the "black box" of the mind, neglecting psychological mechanisms and focusing on pragmatic functionality.
  • The process of learning from limited information is compared to learning about heredity from peas or the existence of dinosaurs from bones.
  • Human learners, particularly babies, demonstrate the ability to make accurate predictions with minimal exposure to stimuli, unlike artificial intelligence.
  • Modern learning theories emphasize that babies are born with innate capabilities and possess advanced statistical knowledge at a young age.
  • They also suggest that there is some objective truth in the world, and statistical signals provide evidence about the "real" world.
  • "Theory theory" proposes that babies learn causal knowledge by forming hypotheses and using experimental and statistical expertise.
  • Evidence-based management seeks to derive causal knowledge to guide managerial actions, akin to evidence-based medicine.
  • However, evidence-based practices are not widely adopted in medicine or management due to reliance on old knowledge and biased beliefs.
  • Management experts often base their advice on sources like Shakespeare or Santa Claus, but organizations are more diverse than humans.
  • There is a challenge in gathering causal knowledge for managers and using the best available evidence as a competitive advantage.
  • Seasoned practitioners in management often rely on their experience, leading to an excessive reliance on dogma and beliefs, affecting decision-making.

Cognitive Biases and Decision Making

  • Tversky & Kahneman (1974) studied how the availability of information affects subjective probability assessment
  • Study showed that the first group of people given more possibilities for car problems had a larger set of potential reasons than the second group, supporting the concept of "Out of sight, out of mind"
  • Correct error analysis depends on considering all possibilities, but this is influenced by the availability of those possibilities
  • Salience refers to the conspicuousness and vividness of information
  • Anchoring effects in decision-making occur when initial information forms a reference point, leading to insufficient subsequent adjustments
  • Examples of anchoring effects include consumer behavior and labor decisions
  • Englich et al. (2009) found that anchoring also influences legal decision-making, affecting the sentences given by judges
  • Framing of decisions manipulates the reference point, influencing choices in different presentations of the same information
  • Vignettes about saving lives illustrate how framing affects decision-making, with different methods preferred depending on how the options are presented
  • Prospect Theory explains how people perceive gains and losses, with losses looming larger than gains and a preference for smaller, secure gains over larger, uncertain gains
  • The value function in Prospect Theory is concave for gains and convex for losses, reflecting a greater sensitivity to losses than gains
  • Decision weight function in decision-making does not directly include probabilities, impacting how people evaluate certain outcomes versus uncertain ones. For example, people tend to prefer a certain amount of money over a gamble with a higher potential payoff.

Expressive Trust and the Hidden Cost of Control

  • Trust in the trust game is not solely driven by efficiency concerns; relational concerns, such as emotional correlates, play a significant role.
  • Trust may not be solely about the prospect of receiving money, but also about the expressive act of trusting itself, reflecting a relational concern and a social norm.
  • Emotional correlates research suggests that immediate emotions, rather than anticipated emotions, predict trust behavior.
  • The relationship status of interaction partners significantly impacts trust behavior in situations where individuals are pessimistic about receiving money back.
  • Minimal relationship effect shows that mere exposure to a relationship triggers expressive concerns, similar to the minimal group effect in group processes.
  • People hold a norm to "be nice," which is related to the identifiable victim effect and the phenomenon of avoiding relationships, as seen in donation campaigns and dictator games.
  • As societies grow, cooperation becomes harder to maintain, and social norms, such as the norm to be nice, can act as a "social glue."
  • Giving in dictator games differs based on the degree of specialization of labor or market integration, as seen in the differences between Americans and Hazda in Tanzania.
  • Evidence for expressive trust suggests that trust rates are lower in hypothetical trust games than in actual trust games, and that the relationship relevance in trust rates is minimal.
  • Excessive control measures in companies, such as time monitoring and performance measurements, have varying effects on business performance.
  • The hidden cost of control is evident in experiments showing that control leads to low trust and low work motivation, as it is perceived as a relational violation and a harsh social signal.
  • Lack of trust can harm the integrity of individuals and lead to questions about why they are not trusted and what is wrong with their firm.

Evolution of Cooperation: Strategies and Mechanisms

  • The Folk Theorem suggests that cooperation may be an equilibrium strategy if there is a shadow of the future and humans care about future payoffs.
  • Robert Axelrod organized a prisoner’s dilemma tournament in the 1980s, where scientists submitted strategies, and Anatol Rapoport's Tit-for-tat emerged as the winner.
  • Tit-for-tat strategy is nice, lenient, and aims for equal payoffs, but it has weaknesses such as instability and fragility in case of errors.
  • An alternative strategy, Generous tit-for-tat, introduces forgiveness and a probability of cooperation even after the opponent defects.
  • Direct reciprocity and indirect reciprocity allow the evolution of cooperation based on repeated interactions and reputation.
  • Group selection theory suggests that a group of cooperators may be more successful than a group of defectors, sparking a strong debate about the role of group selection.
  • Cooperation could have evolved through kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, spatial selection (Network reciprocity), and group selection, but it's not an altruistic act.
  • There are 10 ways to make an organization more cooperative, including increasing the benefits of cooperation, decreasing the cost of cooperation, creating a sense of identity, allowing reputation to spread, and creating stability in the social network.
  • Other ways to promote cooperation in an organization include not undermining human ability to cooperate, creating institutions that foster a cooperative work environment, implementing sanctioning and reward systems, and using the threat of ostracism.

Theories of Motivation and Existentialism in Psychological Knowledge

  • Content theories of motivation were the first attempts to explain human needs, such as Maslow's Need Hierarchy, Murray's Theory of Person-Environment References, and Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory.
  • Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs distinguishes between "deficit needs" and "growth motives," while Alderfer refined the model into existence, social attachment, and growth.
  • Critiques of Maslow's hierarchy include uncertainty of hierarchical levels and its basis in Western individualistic societies.
  • Murray's Theory of Person-Environment References explored a complex list of human aspirations, and his work on achievement motives had a significant impact on organizational and HR research.
  • McClelland's Theory of Achievement Motives emphasized the enjoyment of achievement and self-evaluating emotions, leading to the development of a measurement method for psychogenic needs.
  • Achievement-motivated behavior is defined as behavior aimed at achieving a standard of quality, and it is influenced by the enjoyment of accomplishment and self-evaluating emotions.
  • McClelland's work on the achievement motive was influential in personnel research and practice, with correlations between individual motives and economic development.
  • Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory focused on work motivation based on motivators (work content, recognition) and hygiene factors (remuneration, management style).
  • Herzberg's theory established "job design" and the importance of standard hygiene factors in personnel policy.
  • Intrinsic motivation drives people to pursue activities that they find interesting and derive satisfaction from, while extrinsic motivation requires external rewards.
  • Evidence for intrinsic motivation was obtained from animal experiments, such as Capuchin monkeys voluntarily working on puzzles without pay.
  • Decis's cognitive evaluation theory suggests that people are motivated to seek challenges and develop themselves, driven by an innate tendency for organismic growth.

The Influence of Mechanistic Thinking on Organization and Management

  • Exchange and coordination require time, effort, and money, with parts of the gains of division of labor lost in the process due to transaction costs.
  • Organization has instrumental and institutional meanings, with an institutional view seeing it as a social construct involving individuals with common interests.
  • Classical thoughts about the organization featured the machine prominently in metaphors, influencing the way people think and communicate.
  • Mechanistic thinking has a long history, with influences from ancient Greek atomists to 20th-century scientists and philosophers like Descartes and René Descartes.
  • Mechanistic ideas influenced behavioristic psychology and economics, with behaviorism revisiting human ideas as predictable machines.
  • Many organization theories, including classical management, scientific management, and bureaucratic organizations, were influenced by mechanistic thinking.
  • The organization as an instrument for achieving goals has its origin in the Greek word "Organon," meaning tool or instrument.
  • The industrial revolution led to an increase in operational organizations, with the machine metaphor central to economic theories like Adam Smith's.
  • Bureaucracy theory by Max Weber focused on systematically describing and understanding state administrative structures, emphasizing the efficiency of rules over case-by-case analysis.
  • Weber's bureaucracy theory suggests that organizations are command and obedience associations, with belief in the legitimacy of rules leading to obedience.
  • Classical management theory by Fayol focused on coordinating the entire company and structuring management activities into core tasks like planning and organization.
  • Mechanistic thinking has shaped organizational and management theories, influencing the way organizations are structured and managed.

Description

Test your knowledge of social psychology topics such as self-concept, cognitive dissonance, group processes, conformity, and groupthink. Explore how cultural differences shape the perception of the self and how individuals seek psychological consistency in their beliefs and actions.

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