Social Cognition, Attitudes, and Aggression in Psychology Quiz

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15 Questions

What is the primary focus of the article 'Social Stigma & Self Esteem' by Brenda and Jennifer Crocker?

How an individual responds to being a target of stigmatization and discrimination

Who are the authors of the article 'Stereotype Threat & Intellectual Test Performance'?

Joshua Aronson & Claude Steele

What are the two primary routes to persuasion mentioned in the text?

Central route and peripheral route

When was the theory of 'Communication and Persuasion - Central and Peripheral Routes' published?

1986

What did the article 'How Culture Shapes the Self' by Shinobu Kitayama and Hazel Markus focus on?

Culture's influence on the self

Give an example of someone with both positive and negative self-concepts in different domains.

A husband who thinks of himself as a good father but sees his physical self as out-of-shape and unhealthy

Define self-awareness in relation to self-concept.

Self-awareness refers to the extent to which we are currently fixing our attention on our own self-concept.

What is publicly induced self-awareness known as?

Self-consciousness

Describe a scenario where someone experiences self-consciousness.

When someone is concerned about being observed and potentially judged by others.

Explain the concept of self-complexity.

Self-complexity refers to the extent to which individuals define themselves in terms of multiple aspects that are relatively independent of each other.

How does self-complexity relate to self-concept diversity?

Self-complexity is positively related to self-concept diversity.

What is self-esteem?

Self-esteem refers to an individual's overall subjective emotional evaluation of their own worth.

Explain the term 'self-concept clarity'.

Self-concept clarity refers to the extent to which self-beliefs are clearly and confidently defined and internally consistent.

How does self-concept clarity influence decision-making?

Individuals with high self-concept clarity tend to make more consistent and confident decisions.

What are some examples of positive self-concepts mentioned in the text?

Examples include seeing oneself as intelligent, an important community member, an excellent spouse and friend, nurturing and caring, hard-working and competent.

Study Notes

Social Cognition

  • Focuses on how people process, store, and apply information about other people and social situations
  • Examines the role of cognitive processes in our social interactions

Attitudes and Attitude Change

  • Attitudes are learned tendencies to evaluate things in a certain way
  • Key factors influencing attitude change: cognitive processes, social influence, and personal experiences

Violence and Aggression

  • Aggression refers to behaviors that can result in physical or psychological harm to oneself, others, or objects
  • Violence is a specific type of aggression involving physical force intended to hurt, damage, or kill
  • Aggression can be expressed verbally, mentally, or physically

Prosocial Behavior

  • Prosocial behaviors are intended to help other people
  • Characterized by a concern for the rights, feelings, and welfare of others
  • Examples: feeling empathy, concern for others, and behaving in ways to help or benefit others

Prejudice and Discrimination

  • Prejudice is a baseless and usually negative attitude toward members of a group
  • Common features: negative feelings, stereotyped beliefs, and a tendency to discriminate
  • Discrimination is treatment or consideration based on group membership rather than individual merit

Self and Social Identity

  • Self refers to the subject of one's own experience of phenomena: perception, emotions, thoughts
  • Social identity is a person's sense of who they are based on their group membership(s)
  • Group membership can provide pride, self-esteem, companionship, survival, and security

Interpersonal Relationships and Group Behavior

  • Group behavior refers to the ways people behave in large- or small-group situations
  • People join groups for various reasons, including satisfaction of needs, companionship, and security
  • Common requirements for group recognition: interdependence, shared identity, and common goals

Social Influence

  • Social influence occurs when one's emotions, opinions, or behaviors are affected by others
  • Examples: conformity, socialization, peer pressure, obedience, leadership, persuasion, and sales and marketing

Self-Concept Clarity and Self-Concept Differentiation

  • Self-concept clarity (SCC) refers to how clear, confident, and consistent an individual's definitions of themselves are
  • Self-concept differentiation (SCD) refers to how an individual's self-representation may vary across contexts or social roles
  • Higher SCC indicates a firmer and more stable self-concept, while low SCC indicates uncertainty and vagueness
  • SCD is not as clear-cut, but higher self-concept clarity is positively related to self-esteem and relationship satisfaction

Test your knowledge on topics like social cognition, attitudes, and aggression in psychology. Explore how people process social information, evaluate attitudes, and understand aggressive behaviors.

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