Significance of English Language

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What was the origin of English as a language?

Anglo-Saxon tribes from Northern Germany

When did English face threats from Viking invasions?

Between 800 and 1000 AD

Who saved the Anglo-Saxon language from Viking invasions?

Alfred the Great

What marked the disappearance of English as an official language after 1066 AD?

Norman Invasion of England led by William the Conqueror

What was the opinion regarding the status of English before 1066 AD?

Unworthy of use in any official capacity

In what geographical area did English originally develop?

Northern Germany

What are some features of Chinglish related to tense usage?

Chinglish only uses the present and future tense.

How are actions in the past described in Chinglish?

Actions in the past are described by adverbs like 'already'.

What is a common expression used to summarize feelings like surprise or anger in Chinglish?

In Chinglish, expressions of surprise, disgust, or anger are summarised by 'aiya'.

Give an example of a literal translation in Chinglish.

An example of a literal translation in Chinglish is 'no noising' for 'quiet'.

According to Kachru's circles model, what is the role of the Inner Circle in setting English language norms?

The Inner Circle (e.g. UK, US) is norm-providing, developing English language norms that spread outwards.

Explain the concept of norm-dependency in the Expanding Circle according to Kachru's circles model.

The Expanding Circle relies on the standards set by native speakers in the Inner Circle, making it norm-dependent.

What language became the language of government, while Anglo-Saxon was spoken only by the peasant class?

Norman French

Who won the battle between the Church and those who wished to change the language of the Bible and church services to English?

Those who wished to change to English

What factor launched English beyond its national borders?

Military and commercial power

What policy did Britain pursue for over 200 years to gain control over newly discovered lands?

Colonialism

Who believes that the reason a language is widely used is due to the power of the people who speak it?

David Crystal

How many English speakers were there in the world in the 16th century?

Fewer than five million

What is the estimated total number of English speakers in the world today?

1.5 billion

What are some examples of the many varieties of English mentioned in the text?

Hinglish, Chinglish, Singlish

In what talk did David Crystal provide a light-hearted summary of the development of English?

‘Will English always be the global language?’

Based on the text, how many native English speakers are there compared to those who speak English as a second language?

A quarter are native speakers, a quarter speak it as their second language

What is the purpose of Kachru's Circles model?

To describe the circumstances in which English is spoken throughout the world.

How many circles are there in Kachru's model?

Three circles.

What is the Inner Circle in Kachru's model?

Countries where English is the native language.

Which circle includes countries where English serves as a second language mainly due to colonial history?

Outer circle.

What is the Expanding Circle in Kachru's model?

Countries where English is widely used for international communication.

How many English speakers are approximately in the Inner Circle?

Approximately 380 million English speakers.

What is the lingua franca in the Outer Circle regions?

English.

In which circle do countries like Malaysia, Kenya, and Tanzania fall?

Outer Circle.

What is the main characteristic of the Expanding Circle countries in terms of English usage?

Widely used as a medium of international communication.

What term is used to describe the mix of Chinese and English languages?

Chinglish.

What are some examples of things that English is used for?

Three-quarters of the world’s mail, Half of the world’s technical and scientific journals, Half of all the world’s newspapers, 80% of global information stored in computers, All communications for international air and sea traffic, Many films and songs, Half of European business deals, Seven of the largest TV broadcasters (CBS, NBC, ABC, BBC, CBC, CNN, C-Span)

According to the British Council in 2006, how many people were predicted to be learning English in the next 10-15 years?

Around two billion

What did The Economist magazine describe English as at the end of the 20th century?

'impregnable', 'established as the world’s standard language', 'an intrinsic part of the global communications revolution'

What may start to generate wealth and ideas in the next 50 years from non-English-speaking countries?

Asia, South America, and the Pacific

What is the close link between language and power mentioned in the text?

Currently, the United States, a global superpower, has a majority of English speakers amongst its population.

According to David Crystal, what affects how a language will evolve?

The language produced by non-native speakers affects how the language will evolve.

How do local accents and dialects develop in different areas of the English-speaking world?

Through the process of accommodation, where people want to sound like others in their community.

What is a key issue mentioned in the text regarding the different varieties of English?

Whether there should be one 'correct' form of English or if all varieties have equal merit.

What areas of the world were predicted to have increasing multilingualism in their school curriculum?

Many countries

What was predicted to happen to the status of English as a global language in the future?

It may decline if another country, such as China, were to take over global dominance.

Match the following with their primary usage:

United Nations, pilots, air traffic controllers, international traders, international police agencies = Usage of English Styling web pages, database queries, general-purpose programming, client-side scripting for web applications = Usage of computer programming languages Three-quarters of the world’s mail, half of the world’s technical and scientific journals, half of all the world’s newspapers, 80% of global information stored in computers = Things English is used for Economic growth in non-English-speaking countries in Asia, South America, Pacific, education trends promoting multilingualism, potential decline of English as a global language = Factors affecting the future status of English

Match the following terms with their descriptions:

Inner Circle = Countries where English is a native language Outer Circle = Countries where English serves as a second language mainly due to colonial history Expanding Circle = Countries where English is used as a foreign language for international communication and education Chinglish = Mix of Chinese and English languages

Match the following concepts with their explanations:

Norm-dependency in the Expanding Circle = Varieties of English in Expanding Circle countries that rely on native speakers to set norms Language and power = The influence language has on geopolitical strength and dominance Local accents and dialects development = Different speech patterns that evolve within specific regions of English-speaking countries Evolution based on non-native speakers = How the language evolves based on the interactions between non-native speakers

Match the following historical events with their impacts on English usage:

Battle between Church and those changing language to English = Influence on official language usage after 1066 AD Threats from Viking invasions = Challenges faced by English in its development British policy to control newly discovered lands = Expansion of English beyond national borders Disappearance of Latin as a widely used language = Comparison to potential decline of English as a global language

Match the following predictions with their implications:

Increase in multilingualism in school curriculums worldwide = Education trends providing competition for English Two billion people learning English by 10-15 years followed by potential decline = Shift in global dominance affecting the status of English Economic growth in non-English-speaking countries impacting communication trends = Wealth generation leading to possible decline in English dominance Contact between same-language speakers driving language evolution = 'Accommodation' process influencing pronunciation and syntax development

Match the following time periods with the corresponding events in the historical development of English:

400 AD = Romans left Britain 878 AD = Victory by Alfred the Great saved the Anglo-Saxon language 1066 AD = Norman Invasion of England led by William the Conqueror 1500 years ago = English as a language did not exist

Match the following regions with the status of English in those areas:

Eastern England = Under threat from Viking invasions Britain after Vikings settled = Fledgling language under threat After 1066 AD = English disappeared as an official language for 200 years Before 1066 AD = English not considered to have any official status

Match the following terms with their corresponding meanings:

Anglo-Saxon = Old English language spoken by tribes from Northern Germany Old Norse = Language spoken by the Vikings Kachru's Circles model = Classifying countries based on their use of English Norman Invasion = Led by William the Conqueror in 1066 AD

Match the following key figures with their role in the historical development of English:

Alfred the Great = Saved Anglo-Saxon language from Viking invasions William the Conqueror = Led Norman Invasion of England in 1066 AD Vikings = Spoke Old Norse and spread westwards in England Romans = Left Britain in 400 AD

Match the following statements with their corresponding facts about English:

English was considered unworthy before 1066 AD. = English not considered to have any official status at that time. English disappeared as an official language after 1066 AD. = Disappeared for two hundred years after Norman Invasion. English origins traced back to tribes from Northern Germany. = Anglo-Saxon language brought to Britain by these tribes. English did not exist 1500 years ago. = Language developed from an Anglo-Saxon dialect.

Match the following events with their impact on the historical development of English:

Viking invasions between 800 and 1000 AD = Threatened fledgling English language along east coast of Scotland and England. Norman Invasion in 1066 AD = Caused English to disappear as an official language for two hundred years. Romans leaving Britain in 400 AD = Marked the beginning of Anglo-Saxon tribes settling and bringing their language. Victory by Alfred the Great in 878 AD = Saved Anglo-Saxon language from Viking threats.

Match the following characteristics of Chinglish with their descriptions:

Prolongs some vowel sounds of English = Accentuates certain sounds for longer durations Changes the sounds of the English alphabet in pronunciation = Alters the way certain letters are spoken Uses 'the' as a filler like 'um' = Utilizes a common word for pausing or hesitation Describes actions in the past with adverbs (e.g. 'already') = Specifies past events using specific words

Match the following terms related to Kachru's circles model with their definitions:

Norm-providing = Develops English language norms in-country and spreads them globally Norm-developing = Readily adopts and may create its own language standards Norm-dependent = Relies on standards set by native speakers in other circles Inner Circle = Countries that are primary in establishing language norms

Match the following terms regarding English language norms with their meanings:

Inner Circle = Primary source of language norms Outer Circle = Regions that adopt and possibly create their language standards Expanding Circle = Dependent on standards set by native speakers in other circles Norm-providing = Develops and spreads language norms globally

Match the following Chinglish expressions with their meanings:

Literal translations like 'no noising' for 'quiet' = Direct word-for-word translations that may sound humorous Using 'aiya' to summarize feelings like surprise or anger = Summarizing various emotions with a single common expression Actions in the past described by adverbs (e.g. 'already') = Detailing past events using specific adverbs Using 'the' as a filler like 'um' = Employing a common word for pausing or hesitation

Match the following descriptions with the corresponding roles of Kachru's circles model:

The Inner Circle is norm-providing = 'Norm-providing' role of countries in establishing language standards The Outer Circle is norm-developing = 'Norm-developing' role of regions in adopting and creating language norms The Expanding Circle is norm-dependent = 'Norm-dependent' relationship with language standards from other circles Learners in the Expanding Circle look to standards set in the Inner and Outer Circles = Direction of learning and standard-setting across circles

Match the following features of Chinglish related to tense usage with their descriptions:

Only using present and future tenses = Limiting verb tenses to specific forms Describing actions in the past with adverbs (e.g. 'already') = Using specific words to convey past events Many expressions of feeling summarized by 'aiya' = Condensing various emotions into one common expression Literal translations (e.g. 'no noising') for English terms = Direct translations that may sound humorous

Match the following circles in Kachru's model with their corresponding descriptions:

Expanding Circle = English used as a medium of international communication in countries like China and Russia Outer Circle = English regarded as a second language in regions like India and Nigeria, serving as a lingua franca Inner Circle = Native language of countries like USA and UK, dominating communication and social purposes All three circles = Representation of how English is spoken in different contexts around the world

Match the following terms related to Kachru's Circles with their correct definitions:

Native Language = Language spoken from birth, representing the Inner Circle in Kachru's model Second Language = Language learned in addition to one's native language, characterizing the Outer Circle in Kachru's model Foreign Language = Language not commonly spoken in a particular region, exemplified by the Expanding Circle in Kachru's model Lingua Franca = Common language used for communication between people who do not share a native language, seen in the Outer Circle regions

Match the following regions with their corresponding circles in Kachru's model:

China and Russia = Expanding Circle India and Nigeria = Outer Circle USA and UK = Inner Circle Japan and Malaysia = None of the above

Match the following characteristics of English usage with their respective circle in Kachru's model:

Mainly business English and internet usage = Expanding Circle Serves as a lingua franca between ethnic groups = Outer Circle Used for administrative and social purposes dominantly = Inner Circle Limited historical or governmental role but widely used internationally = Expanding Circle

Match the following types of English speakers with their appropriate circle according to Kachru's model:

Native English speakers in the UK = Inner Circle English learners incorporating their native language features = Expanding Circle English serving as a second language due to colonial legacy = Outer Circle English as a global medium of communication for specific purposes = Expanding Circle

Match the following features of Chinglish with their descriptions:

Japlish (Japanese + English) = Mix of Japanese and English languages Chinglish (Chinese + English) = Mix of Chinese and English languages Recognizable language style incorporating native language elements = Japlish (Japanese + English) Growing variety of English showcasing different language mixes = Chinglish (Chinese + English)

Match the following descriptions with their corresponding circle in Kachru's model:

English being a useful common language between different ethnic groups = Outer Circle English dominating communication and social interactions within a country = Inner Circle Historical or governmental role absent but widely used for international communication = Expanding Circle Language features incorporated from both English and native languages during communication = Expanding Circle

Match the following regions with their primary role in English usage according to Kachru's model:

USA and UK = Native Language usage dominates communication India and Nigeria = Second Language usage mainly due to colonial legacy China and Russia = Medium of international communication for specific purposes Japan and Malaysia = No significant role in any specific circle

Match the following definitions with their respective terms according to Kachru's Circles model:

Language spoken from birth by most people in a country (e.g., USA) = Native Language Common language used for communication between different ethnic groups (e.g., India) = Lingua Franca Language learned in addition to one's mother tongue (e.g., Nigeria) = Second Language Language not commonly spoken but used for specific purposes internationally (e.g., China) = Foreign Language

Match the following roles of English with their appropriate circles according to Kachru's model:

Primary language dominating social interactions within a region (e.g., UK) = Inner Circle Second language serving as a common medium between diverse ethnic groups (e.g., India) = Outer Circle Language used for limited international purposes alongside native languages (e.g., Russia) = Expanding Circle Common language employed for business and internet communications (e.g., China) = Expanding Circle

Match the following historical events with their impact on the English language:

Norman Conquest in 1066 AD = English reemerged as a combination of English and French British Empire in the 16th century = Spread of English beyond national borders British colonialism policy for over 200 years = English taken to new colonies by British settlers Decline of British Empire in the 20th century = Continued spread of English through North America's influence

Match the following terms with their respective descriptions:

Hinglish = A variety of English spoken in India Chinglish = A fusion of Chinese and English languages Singlish = A form of English spoken in Singapore Global English = English language spoken by 1.5 billion people worldwide

Match the following key figures with their beliefs or opinions on language development:

David Crystal = 'It’s English turning up at the right time during these last four hundred years or so which has produced the enormous cultural status that it has.' Linguist from The Economist magazine = Described English as being 'the world's most useful language' at the end of the 20th century British Council figures = Around 375 million native speakers and around 750 million second language speakers worldwide Kachru's Circles model = Proposed a framework for understanding global varieties of English

Match the following languages with their roles in the development of English:

Latin = Initially preserved as the language of the Bible and church services by the Church Anglo-Saxon = Spoken by the peasant class while Norman French became the language of government Chinese = Suggested as a potential new name for Global English by David Crystal Over 350 languages worldwide = Contributed words to the development of English

Match the following circles in Kachru's model with their characteristics:

Inner Circle = Countries where English is spoken as a first language mainly Outer Circle = Countries where English serves as a second language mainly due to colonial history Expanding Circle = Countries where English is taught as a foreign language for practical reasons Hinglish, Chinglish, Singlish countries = Varieties of English spoken in different regions falling under Kachru's model

Match the following linguistic features with their examples from Chinglish:

Irregular system of spelling = 'it has got so little do with England these days it may well be time to stop calling it English' Highly irregular tense usage = 'are able to ask for directions to a local swimming pool' Literal translation issues = 'ask for directions to a local swimming pool' Influence from over 350 languages = 'pilfering words from over 350 languages'

Match the following statements about English speakers with their corresponding facts:

About 375 million native speakers worldwide = English is spoken as a first language by this number of people Approximately 750 million second language speakers worldwide = English is spoken as a second language by this number of people Total number of English speakers around 1.5 billion worldwide = 'about 1.5 billion people speak English' according to David Crystal Half are able to ask for directions to a local swimming pool = Percentage of people who can speak basic English phrases according to David Crystal

Match the following criteria used to assess world language status with their relevance to English:

Number of first language speakers must be high = 'around 375 million' speak English as a first language according to British Council figures Speakers must be spread over a wide geographical area = 'English is spoken on all five continents' based on British Council figures Political and economic stability is necessary for spread without opposition = 'Political and economic affairs must be stable so that the language can be spread without large-scale opposition' based on criteria used for assessing world language status English spoken on all five continents = 'English is spoken on all five continents' based on criteria used for assessing world language status

Match the following types of varieties in Global English with their descriptions:

Native speakers variety = 'about a quarter are native speakers' according to David Crystal Second language speakers variety = 'a quarter speak it as their second language' according to David Crystal Varieties like Hinglish, Chinglish, Singlish = 'So, in conclusion, the language has got so little do with England these days...' according to David Crystal Global variety spoken by 1.5 billion people worldwide = 'about 1.5 billion people speak English: of these...' according to David Crystal

Match the following statements about linguistic power with their relevance to English:

Language widely used due to power of its speakers = 'David Crystal believes that ‘it’s English turning up at the right time during these last four hundred years or so which has produced...' Factors affecting evolution of a language include timing and circumstances = 'David Crystal believes that ‘it’s...which has produced...' Close link between language dominance and influential people speaking it = 'David Crystal believes that ‘it’s...which has produced...'

English was not considered to have any status at all 1500 years ago.

False

The Anglo-Saxon tribes spoke a language called Old Norse.

False

Vikings gained power in the eastern areas of England between 800 and 1000 AD.

True

Alfred the Great's victory in 878 AD saved the Old English language from extinction.

True

English disappeared completely as an official language after the Norman Invasion of England in 1066 AD.

False

English gained importance as a world language due to its use in official capacities before 1066 AD.

False

English is the only language used by international organisations like the United Nations.

False

Latin currently has the same dominant status globally as English.

False

The prediction that English will decline as a global language is considered premature.

True

The Economist magazine described English as 'vulnerable' at the end of the 20th century.

False

The majority of economic growth in the next 50 years is predicted to come from English-speaking countries.

False

Multilingualism is not common in school curriculums around the world today.

False

David Crystal believes that native speakers have the most significant impact on how a language evolves.

False

All varieties of English have equal status globally.

False

Local accents and dialects do not develop within English-speaking communities.

False

The number of native English speakers exceeds the number of people who speak English as a second language.

False

Chinglish uses the past tense to describe actions that happened in the past.

False

The term 'Chinglish' refers to the blend of Chinese and Spanish languages.

False

According to Kachru's circles model, the Outer Circle countries are norm-providing.

False

English language norms are mainly set by native speakers in the Expanding Circle according to Kachru's model.

False

'Aiya' is a common expression used in Chinglish to summarize feelings like surprise or disgust.

True

The concept of norm-dependency in the Expanding Circle means that countries rely on the standards set by the Outer Circle.

False

Norman French was the language spoken by the peasant class in England.

False

English reemerged three hundred years later solely as a result of the English language spoken at the time.

False

David Crystal is primarily known for his contributions to the field of biology.

False

The Church successfully preserved Latin as the language of the Bible and church services.

False

Kachru's circles model is used to describe the geographical areas where English is spoken.

False

There were more than five million English speakers in the world in the 16th century.

False

English is primarily used as a lingua franca in the Inner Circle countries.

False

English dominance beyond national borders was mainly due to the Spanish Empire.

False

The Expanding Circle includes countries where English serves a historical or governmental role.

False

The British Empire declined during the 19th century.

False

Chinglish is an example of mixing Chinese and English language features.

True

David Crystal believes that language usage depends on people's preference for sound over meaning.

False

Kachru's Circles model consists of only two circles: Inner Circle and Outer Circle.

False

English plays a limited role in the Expanding Circle countries, mainly being used for ceremonial functions.

False

There are approximately 1.5 billion people who speak English, with all of them being native speakers.

False

The total number of English speakers in the Inner Circle regions is estimated to be around 500-700 million.

False

English dominance in entertainment and media industries has decreased over time.

False

David Crystal's talk 'Will English always be the global language?' was a serious analysis of linguistic patterns across cultures.

False

India falls under the Outer Circle in Kachru's model, where English serves as a native language.

False

The UK, USA, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa are part of the Inner Circle in Kachru's model.

True

Learn about the importance of English language in trade, scientific research, international affairs, and various sectors such as government, education, communication, science, and technology around the world.

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