Shake Up Your Knowledge

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By jwblackwell

Quiz

Flashcards

9 Questions

What is an earthquake?

What is the Pacific Ring of Fire responsible for?

What is the difference between earthquake magnitude and intensity?

What is the moment magnitude scale used for?

What are earthquake swarms?

What is earthquake engineering?

What is earthquake prediction?

What is the most devastating earthquake in recorded history?

What is the purpose of disaster mental health response research?

Summary

Sudden Movement of the Earth's Crust

  • An earthquake is the shaking of the Earth's surface resulting from a sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.

  • Earthquakes can range in intensity, from those that cannot be felt to those that can cause destruction across entire cities.

  • Earthquakes can also trigger landslides and tsunamis.

  • Earthquakes are caused mostly by the rupture of geological faults, but also by volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear tests.

  • There are three main types of fault: normal, reverse (thrust), and strike-slip.

  • The energy released in an earthquake is proportional to the area of the fault that ruptures and the stress drop.

  • For every unit increase in magnitude, there is a roughly thirtyfold increase in energy released.

  • Most tectonic earthquakes originate in the Ring of Fire at depths not exceeding tens of kilometers.

  • Earthquakes often occur in volcanic regions and are caused there by both tectonic faults and the movement of magma in volcanoes.

  • Earthquake swarms are sequences of earthquakes striking in a specific area within a short period.

  • Aftershocks are earthquakes that occur after a previous earthquake, the mainshock.

  • Earthquake storms occur when a series of earthquakes strike a fault in clusters, each triggered by the shaking or stress redistribution of the previous earthquakes.Facts about Earthquakes

  • Earthquakes have been experienced by humans from the earliest of times.

  • Magnitude and intensity are two different measures of earthquakes.

  • The first earthquake magnitude scale was developed by Charles Francis Richter in 1935.

  • The moment magnitude scale is currently used by seismological authorities to express an earthquake's strength.

  • Around 500,000 earthquakes occur each year, but only 100,000 of them can be felt.

  • The Pacific Ring of Fire is responsible for 90% of the world's earthquakes.

  • Human activity, such as fracking, can also produce earthquakes.

  • Seismic waves travel through the Earth's interior and can be recorded by seismometers at great distances.

  • The effects of earthquakes include shaking and ground rupture, soil liquefaction, landslides, fires, tsunamis, and floods.

  • The 1556 Shaanxi earthquake was one of the most devastating earthquakes in recorded history, with over 830,000 deaths.

  • Earthquake prediction is a branch of the science of seismology concerned with forecasting the time, location, and magnitude of future earthquakes.

  • Recovery times after an earthquake vary based on the level of damage and the socioeconomic status of the impacted community.Earthquakes: Prediction, Preparedness, and Cultural Significance

  • Earthquake prediction is concerned with determining the time, location, and magnitude of future earthquakes within stated limits, but scientifically reproducible predictions cannot yet be made to a specific day or month.

  • Earthquake forecasting is concerned with the probabilistic assessment of general earthquake hazards, including the frequency and magnitude of damaging earthquakes in a given area over years or decades.

  • Earthquake warning systems have been developed that can provide regional notification of an earthquake in progress, but before the ground surface has begun to move.

  • Earthquake engineering aims to design buildings and other structures to minimize the risk of damage, and existing structures can be modified by seismic retrofitting to improve their resistance to earthquakes.

  • Emergency management strategies can be employed to mitigate risks and prepare for consequences, while individuals can also take preparedness steps like securing water heaters and heavy items that could injure someone.

  • From the 5th century BCE to the 14th century CE, earthquakes were usually attributed to "air (vapors) in the cavities of the Earth," and various theories existed, including that of Poseidon as the cause and god of earthquakes in Greek mythology.

  • In Norse mythology, earthquakes were explained as the violent struggle of the god Loki, while in Japanese mythology, Namazu is a giant catfish who causes earthquakes.

  • In modern popular culture, earthquakes tend to strike suddenly and without warning, as depicted in various novels and films, with the most popular single earthquake in fiction being the hypothetical "Big One" expected of California's San Andreas Fault someday.

  • Disaster mental health response research emphasizes the need to be aware of the different roles of loss of family and key community members, loss of home and familiar surroundings, and loss of essential supplies and services to maintain survival.

  • Particularly for children, the clear availability of caregiving adults who can protect, nourish, and clothe them in the aftermath of the earthquake has been shown even more important to their emotional and physical health than the simple giving of provisions.

  • It is also important not to pathologize the reactions to loss and displacement or disruption of governmental administration and services, but rather to validate these reactions, to support constructive problem-solving and reflection as to how one might improve the conditions of those affected.

Description

Test your knowledge on earthquakes with this informative quiz! From the science behind earthquakes to their cultural significance, this quiz covers a wide range of topics. Learn about earthquake prediction, preparedness, and recovery times, as well as the effects they can have on communities. With interesting facts and important information, this quiz is perfect for anyone interested in understanding more about the sudden movement of the Earth's crust.

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