Schools of Thought on Human Behavior

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What was the primary focus of William James in his studies?

Adaptive functions of the mind

Who is considered the founder of the functionalism school of thought?

William James

Which term refers to a form, whole, configuration, or pattern in the context of Gestalt psychology?

Gestalt

What did Gestalt psychologists argue about the mind's composition?

It is greater than the sum of its parts

What was the main goal of structuralists in psychology?

To study the structure of the mind

What was believed to be needed for psychology to become scientific according to the text?

Focusing on studying behavior

Which approach in psychology focuses on the study of mental structure?

Structuralism

What distinguished structuralism from other schools of thought in psychology at the time?

Its emphasis on introspection as a method for studying mental experience

Who is considered the founder of structuralism in psychology?

Edward Titchener

What was the primary method used by structuralists to analyze mental experience?

Introspection

According to functionalism, how did William James differ from Wundt and Titchener in his focus?

He focused on how the mind allows people to function in the real world

In Gestalt psychology, what did the term 'gestalt' refer to?

The whole pattern of sensory activity and relationships within it

What led to the birth of behaviorism as a new paradigm in psychology?

The belief that psychology should focus on observable and measurable behavior

What was the primary goal of Gestalt psychologists in their study of the mind?

To understand the mind as a result of the whole pattern of sensory activity

What was the fundamental difference between the biological approach and the environmental approach to understanding human behavior?

The biological approach focused on genetic inheritance, while the environmental approach focused on external interactions.

How did functionalists generally view psychological processes?

As adaptive processes that allow humans to survive and adapt successfully

What was the primary objective of the early structuralists in psychology?

To identify and analyze the units or elements that make up the mind.

How did structuralists primarily conduct their analysis of mental experience?

Through introspection, by looking inward into consciousness.

In what way did the early systems of thought in psychology influence the discipline's development?

They laid the foundation for different schools of thought to emerge in psychology.

What characterized the approach of structuralism towards studying psychology?

An emphasis on analyzing the structure of mind and mental elements.

Explore the different systems of thinking about human behavior and the mind, including biological and environmental approaches. Understand the tendency to provide general, systematized explanations for phenomena.

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