Respiratory System Physiology Quiz

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20 Questions

What provides the elastic force to the lung tissue?

Elastin and collagen

Which factor is important for preventing lung collapse?

Surfactant

What is the relationship between the size of an alveolus and surface tension?

Inverse relationship

Which hormone causes bronchoconstriction in the respiratory system?

Acetylcholine

What type of dead space is almost nonexistent in a normal person?

Alveolar dead space

What affects airflow through the bronchioles?

Bronchodilators and bronchoconstrictors

What determines lung elasticity?

Changes in volume with pressure

Which substance reduces surface tension caused by water molecules?

Surfactant

What are the properties that give the lung tissue its elasticity?

$Elastin$ and $collagen$

Which is an active surface agent in water that prevents lung collapse?

$Surfactant$

Which structure is responsible for the gas exchange in the lungs?

Alveoli

During which phase of respiration is the diaphragm active?

Expiration

What is the measure of the lungs' ability to expand or contract?

Lung compliance

Which muscles are considered accessory muscles in respiration?

Intercostals

What is the space between the pleural layers called?

Pleural cavity

What is the process of moving air in and out of the lungs called?

Ventilation

Which blood vessels carry blood flow through the lungs?

Pulmonary circulation

What is the maximal volume inspired called?

Inspiratory capacity

Which measure reflects the resistance to lung expansion?

Elastance

What is the rate and volume of air moved into/out of lungs per minute called?

Minute ventilation

Study Notes

  • Eduardo begins 37th class in physiology, focusing on respiratory system:
    • Ventilatory system: process of moving air in and out of lungs
    • Respiration: process of gas exchange between body and air
  • Human anatomy:
    • Lungs filled with alveoli, responsible for gas exchange
    • Alveoli lined with thin membrane for efficient gas exchange
    • Pulmonary circulation: blood flow through lungs
  • Muscles involved in respiration:
    • Diaphragm: largest muscle responsible for breathing
    • Accessory muscles: intercostals, serratus anterior
  • Pleura: thin membrane lining lungs
    • Pleural cavity: space between pleura layers
    • Liquid pleural: lubricates lungs, prevents friction
  • Respiratory system structure:
    • Trachea: airway from mouth to lungs
    • Bronchi: branches from trachea into lungs
    • Bronchioles: smallest airways in lungs
  • Mechanics of respiration:
    • Diaphragm contractions: passive in inspiration, active in expiration
    • Chest wall movements: expansion in inspiration, contraction in expiration
  • Pressures in respiratory system:
    • Intrapleural pressure: negative during inspiration, positive during expiration
    • Alveolar pressure: negative during inspiration, positive during expiration
  • Prescription pulmonary volumes:
    • Tidal volume: amount of air inspired/expired per breath
    • Residual volume: air remaining in lungs after exhaling
    • Inspiratory capacity: maximal volume inspired
    • Functional residual capacity: volume remaining after normal expiration
    • Total lung capacity: maximal volume lungs can hold
  • Lung compliance: measure of lungs' ability to expand/contract
  • Elastance: inverse of compliance, measures resistance to lung expansion
  • Pulmonary ventilation: rate and volume of air moved into/out of lungs per minute- Confianza is the property that allows structures, such as the lung, to expand or stretch.
  • Lung elasticity is determined by changes in volume with pressure.
  • Elasticity in the lung is due to the properties of the lung tissue and surface tension.
  • Elastin and collagen give the lung tissue its elasticity.
  • Elastin and collagen provide the elastic force to the lung tissue.
  • Surfactant is an active surface agent in water that reduces surface tension.
  • Surfactant reduces the surface tension caused by water molecules.
  • Surfactant is important for preventing lung collapse.
  • There is a relationship between the radio (size) of an alveolus (air sac) and surface tension.
  • When points at the end of an alveolus in the lungs are obstructed, surface tension increases, leading to collapse.
  • The lungs have several volumes and capacities, including the current volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, residual volume, functional residual capacity, and total lung capacity.
  • The volume respiratory rate is the amount of new air entering the respiratory system per minute, which is 12 liters per minute (L/min) for a normal person.
  • The total volume of air in the lungs is approximately 5,800 ml (5.8 L).
  • The respiratory system has anatomical dead spaces where air enters but does not exchange gases.
  • The alveolar dead space is almost nonexistent in a normal person due to the presence of bronchioles and specialized membranes.
  • The respiratory system has several respiratory muscles, including the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, which help expand the thoracic cavity and draw air into the lungs.
  • Bronchodilators and bronchoconstrictors can affect airflow through the bronchioles, depending on the presence of certain receptors and hormones.
  • The parasympathetic nervous system can produce a hormone called acetylcholine, which causes bronchoconstriction.
  • Certain medications, such as beta-agonists and antagonists, can affect the action of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems on the bronchioles.- The text discusses the cleaning mechanism in airways, using the case of Peter Liam's bronchi as an example.
  • Peter Liam's epithelium is cylindrical and stratified, with ciliated cells and mucosa producing a large amount of mucus.
  • The majority of the airway surface has cilia, which move in anterograde and retrograde directions, pushing trapped particles and mucus towards the oropharynx.
  • The cilia's peculiarity is that they carry the trapped particles and mucus towards the oropharynx, while the mucus moves in the opposite direction.
  • The objective of this movement is to clean the particles and bring them to the oropharynx for spitting or swallowing.
  • The text also mentions that both coughing and sneezing have something in common: an irritation causes irritation in the respiratory airways, but for sneezing, the irritation must be in the superior airways (nose) and for coughing, in the lower airways (trachea and bronchi).
  • In the case of sneezing, irritation in the nasal airways above the mouth causes the reflex, which is a nervous response and a protective cleaning mechanism.
  • The text suggests using "Fisiología Gaitán" edition 13 as reference material.

Test your knowledge of the respiratory system's anatomy and mechanics, including the ventilatory system, pulmonary circulation, respiratory muscles, pressures in the respiratory system, lung volumes, pulmonary ventilation, and cleaning mechanisms in airways. This quiz covers topics from Eduardo's 37th class in physiology.

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