Research Design Objectives and Hypotheses Quiz

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What are dependent variables?

Variables measured in response to changes in the independent variable

How do managers attempt to change dependent variables?

By establishing causal relationships with independent variables

What are extraneous variables?

Variables other than the independent variables that may affect the dependent variable

What is the purpose of experimental design?

To attribute changes in dependent variables solely to changes in independent variables

What is the function of the control group in experimental design?

To ensure extraneous variables remain unchanged

What does external validity refer to in an experiment?

The generalizability of the relationship observed between the independent and dependent variables to the real world

What is an advantage of laboratory experiments over field experiments?

Control for extraneous variables

What is a disadvantage of field experiments compared to laboratory experiments?

Expense and time consuming

Why is the lack of a natural setting a disadvantage in laboratory experiments?

Concern that the findings do not generalize to the real world

What type of experiments allow for conducting the study in a naturalistic setting?

Field experiments

What is the main purpose of test marketing?

To test sales potential for a new product or service

What is a disadvantage of standard test markets?

Competitors are immediately aware of the new product or service

What distinguishes controlled test markets from standard test markets?

They guarantee distribution of the product through prespecified types and numbers of distributors

What should an experimenter always be alert to in the natural settings of field experimentation?

Impact of extraneous variables

What kind of setting are standard test markets generally conducted in?

Real settings with competitors' awareness

What is the purpose of A/B testing?

To test two alternatives simultaneously to see which is better

What is the measurement of the independent variable after changing the independent variable called?

Posttest

Which form of validity assesses the extent to which the change in the dependent variable is actually due to the change in the independent variable?

Internal validity

What is a pretest in an experimental design?

A measurement of the independent variable before changing it

When does an experiment become valid?

When the observed change in the dependent variable is due to the independent variable

What is the advantage of discontinuous (omnibus) panels?

They represent a group of persons who have made themselves available for research

How is causality defined in the text?

As understanding a phenomenon in terms of conditional statements

What is an independent variable according to the text?

A variable that the researcher has control over and wishes to manipulate

What is the purpose of experiments in marketing research?

To manipulate independent variables and observe their effect on dependent variables

Which type of research represents existing samples of consumers that may be quickly accessed for various purposes?

Discontinuous (omnibus) panels

What is the purpose of exploratory research?

To gain background information and develop hypotheses

What are hypotheses in research?

Statements taken as true for the purposes of argument or investigation

What is a construct in research?

Abstract idea or concept composed of a set of attitudes or behaviors

What is the unit of measurement in the context of research?

Elements of constructs that can be measured

What type of research involves testing hypotheses that specify the relationships between two or more variables?

Causal research

What is the purpose of simulated test markets?

To gauge consumers’ reactions to new products

What is a disadvantage of simulated test markets?

They may not provide as accurate results as standard test markets

What type of data is used to create a model in simulated test markets?

Data on consumer response to new products

Why are simulated test markets considered confidential?

To prevent competitors from learning about new product tests

What is a benefit of using simulated test markets compared to standard test markets?

Faster results

What is the main advantage of using a model in simulated test markets?

Predicting product sales volume

What is a potential drawback of simulated test markets based on the text?

Artificial conditions may affect accuracy of results

Why might competitors be less likely to learn about new product tests in simulated test markets?

Simulated test markets are confidential

What does the text suggest about the speed of obtaining results in simulated test markets compared to standard test markets?

Results are obtained faster in simulated test markets

In simulated test markets, what role do extraneous variables play?

There is less potential for interference from extraneous variables in simulated test markets

What has contributed to a more than 450% increase in healthcare costs since 1984?

Medical advances

Which federal act regulates Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) at both the federal and state levels?

HMOA

Which act oversees enforcement of the American with Disabilities Act of 1990?

IRS

What does COBRA, HIPAA, and the Women’s Health and Cancer Rights Act of 1998 come under?

ERISA

Which type of benefits cover hospital expenses not requiring overnight stays?

Outpatient benefits

What is the main action of the PPACA in relation to health-care plans?

Increasing access to health insurance, regulating the health insurance industry, and reducing healthcare costs

What does HIPAA stand for?

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

What do companies do when they fail to offer affordable coverage according to the text?

Failing to offer affordable coverage

What is the defining characteristic of fully insured health-care plans?

Insurers specify the amount paid for medical claims

What distinguishes individual coverage from group coverage in health insurance?

The employment setting in which coverage is obtained

In self-funded health-care plans, who assumes the risk for paying claims?

Employers

What is the primary method used by employers to establish and maintain fully insured health-care plans?

Paying premiums to insurers

What role do insurance companies play in self-funded health-care plans?

Administering the plan

What is the purpose of underwriting in the context of health-care plans?

To evaluate the risk associated with providing coverage

How do self-funded plans differ from fully insured plans in terms of assuming risk?

Fully insured plans assume more risk than self-funded plans

Which type of plan pays a cash benefit to the employee or to the health care provider?

Fee-for-Service Plans

Which form of managed care emphasizes cost control by limiting the choice of doctors and hospitals?

Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs)

What type of HMOs require network providers but will cover emergency care outside the network?

Open-access HMOs

Which type of HMO owns the medical facilities?

Staff model HMOs

In prepaid group practices, which type of HMOs contract with physicians and cover multiple specialties?

Group model HMOs

Which common form of managed care is described as emphasizing cost control by limiting choice of doctors and hospitals?

Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs)

What does coinsurance refer to?

The percentage paid by the insured after meeting the deductible

What is the term for the maximum amount a plan would cover each year?

Yearly limits

What are high-deductible health insurance plans (HDHPs) characterized by?

High deductibles and low out-of-pocket maximums

What is the primary purpose of consumer-driven health-care plans (CDHP)?

To combine a pretax payment account with a high-deductible health plan

What is the purpose of preadmission certification of medical necessity for hospitalization?

To ensure the necessity of hospitalization before admission

What do lifetime limits refer to in the context of health-care plans?

The maximum amount a plan would cover over a lifetime

What is the role of carve-out plans in providing health-care benefits?

"A contract agreement to provide special services"

Test your knowledge about the objectives of research design and the concept of hypotheses. Explore topics such as gathering background information, developing hypotheses, measuring variables, and testing relationships between variables.

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