Regulation of Gastric Secretion: Gastrin and HCl Release

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What is the function of the upper esophageal sphincter during swallowing?

Contracts after food enters

During swallowing, what is the role of the constrictor muscles in the pharynx?

Force food into the esophagus

What is the function of the gastroesophageal sphincter after food enters the stomach?

Closes to prevent regurgitation

What is the role of peristalsis in digestion?

Moves food through the esophagus to the stomach

Where is the fundus located in the stomach?

Beneath the diaphragm

What is the function of the pyloric valve in stomach emptying?

Controls stomach emptying

What initiates the release of HCl from parietal cells during the gastric phase?


What causes a decline in pH, leading to inhibition of gastrin secretion?

Low pH (below 2)

During the intestinal phase, what factor briefly stimulates the gastric glands of the stomach?

Enteric gastrin

Which of the following is NOT a factor that causes inhibition of gastric secretions during the intestinal phase?

Increased gastrin levels

What is the primary function of inhibitory effects during the intestinal phase?

To protect the intestine from too much acidity

Which phase is characterized by enterogastric reflex and hormonal mechanisms for inhibiting gastric secretions?

Intestinal phase

What is the function of parietal cells in the stomach?

Make stomach contents acidic to break down proteins

What is the main function of chief cells in the stomach?

Release digestive enzymes like pepsinogen

Which type of cell secretes hormone gastrin in the stomach?

Enteroendocrine cells

Why is intrinsic factor produced by parietal cells important?

Required for absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine

What is the role of lipases in the stomach?

Digest fat and break down lipids

Which process does the stomach carry out that involves denaturing proteins?

Carrying out breakdown of food

Which organ is the major organ of digestion and absorption?

Small intestine

What is the function of the pancreas in the digestive system?

Production of digestive enzymes

Which part of the small intestine is 8 feet long and attached posteriorly by mesentery?


Where does the small intestine join the large intestine?

At the ileocecal valve

What is the diameter range of the small intestine?

2.5-4 cm

Which gland is NOT an accessory digestive organ mentioned in the text?


Which molecule is the fuel most commonly used by cells to make ATP?


What should dietary requirements mostly consist of, according to the text?

Complex carbohydrates

Which lipid is found in saturated fats in meat, dairy foods, tropical oils, or hydrogenated oils?


What is the main function of adipose tissue in the body?

Fuel storage

Which lipid type is used in myelin sheaths and all cell membranes?


What is the function of prostaglandins in the body?

Smooth muscle contraction

Learn about the stimulation and inhibition of the gastric phase in the regulation of gastric secretion. Understand how gastrin initiates HCl release from parietal cells, and how ingested proteins affect gastrin secretion. Explore the buffering action of proteins and the negative feedback mechanism during digestion.

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